www.khabarnama.com  {Punjabi Newspaper Khabarnama Toronto} email: editor@khabarnama.com 


 

ਅਖ਼ਬਾਰ ਪੜ੍ਹਨ ਲਈ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ  ਫਾਂਟ ਇੱਥੋਂ ਡਾਊਂਨਲੋਡ ਕਰ

 

 

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kMijLAUmirjLm aqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn

suKvMq huMdl

 sukhwanthundal123@gmail.com

 

jfx-pCfx:

 

awj sMsfr pwDr AuWqy kMijLAumirjLm (Kpqvfd) ny lokF dy rihx sihx nUM pUrI qrHF afpxy klfvy ivwc ilaf hoieaf hY. EprI njLr nfl dyiKaF kMijLAumirjLm df ieh psfr  qrwkI aqy KusLhflI df pRqIk njLr afAuNdf hY. pr ies nUM zUMGfeI nfl dyiKaF sfnUM smJ afAuNdI hY ik ieh DrqI dy vfqfvrn  dy ivnfsL df iek vwzf kfrn hY. idno idn lokF dy jIvn AuWqy vDdI jFdI kMijLAumirjLm dI jkV vfqfvrn dy sMkt nUM hor zUMGf krI jFdI hY aqy lokF aqy DrqI dI KusLhflI aqy hoNd leI Kqrf bxdI jFdI hY. ies leI kMijLAumirjLm aqy vfqfvrn dy nuksfn dy afpsI sMbMD nUM smJxf bhuq jLrUrI hY. ies dy nfl nfl ieh smJxf vI jLrUrI hY ik sMsfr pwDr AuWqy kMijLAUmrijLm dI vD rhI jkV dy kI kfrn hn. ieh smJx leI asIN ies lyK ivwc awgy idwqIaF gwlF `qy ivcfr krFgy: kMijLAumirjLm aqy ies df psfr, kMijAumirjLm aqy vfqfvfrn df nuksfn aqy kMijLAumirjLm dy psfr dy buinafdI kfrn.

 

kMijLAumirjLm aqy ies df psfr

 

    sB qoN pihlF sfnUM ies gwl bfry spsLt hoxf cfhIdf hY ik kMijLAUmirjLm hY kI? mnuwK nUM ijLMdf rihx leI rotI, kwpVy aqy mkfn dI loV pYNdI hY aqy ies loV nUM pUrf krn leI vsqF/syvfvF df iesqymfl kMijLAUmirjLm nhIN hY. pr jdoN vsqF/syvfvF nUM hfsl krnf hI mnuwK dI ijLMdgI df vwzf mksd bx jfvy aqy Auh vsqF/syvfvF hfsl krn nUM afpxI pihcfx, pRfpqI, smfj ivwc afpxy ruqby df afDfr smJx lg pvy qF asIN kih skdy hF ik Auh kMijLAUmirjLm df isLkfr hY. vrzvfc ieMstIicAUt df sInIar KojI, aYirk aYsfzorIan, ibRitsL arQsLfsqrI pfl eIiknjL dy hvfly nfl ilKdf hY ik kMijAUmirjLm aijhI siBafcfrk soc hY ijs anusfr smfj ivwc “vwD qoN vwD vsqF aqy syvfvF dI mflkI aqy vrqoN siBafcfrk qOr `qy muwK insLfnf bx jFdI hY aqy (ies nUM) inwjI KusLI, smfjk ruqby aqy kOmI kfmXfbI df XkInI rsqf mMinaf jFdf hY.” aYsfzorIan anusfr jy sOKy sLbdF ivwc kihxf hovy qF, “kMijLAUmirjLm iek aijhf siBafcfrk vrqfrf hY ijs anusfr lok cIjLF aqy syvfvF dI Kpq krky (ijLMdgI ivwc) mqlb, sMqusLtI aqy pRvfngI Bfldy hn. [[[ hr QF lok vwD qoN vwD Kpq nUM BlfeI aqy kfmXfbI nfl joV ky dyKdy hn.”

      sucyq jF acyq rUp ivwc kMijLAUmirjLm siBafcfr dIaF kdrF kImqF apxfa ky ijLMdgI jIa rhy lokF dy smUh nUM smfj ivigafnIaF ny “kMijLAUmr susfietI” jF “kMijLAUmr klfs” df nF idwqf hY. sMn 2004 ivwc pRkfisLq hoeI iek irport anusfr 2004 qwk dunIaF Br dy 27 PIsdI jF 1[7 arb (iblIan) lok kMijLAUmr susfietI df ihwsf bx cuwky sn. iehnF ivwcoN 27 kRoV amrIkf aqy kYnyzf ivwcoN sn, 35 kRoV pwCmI XUrp ivwcoN, 24 kRoV cIn ivwcoN aqy 12-12 kRoV jfpfn aqy Bfrq ivwcoN sn. iehnF lokF dI afmdn 7000 zflr sflfnf dI KRIdsLkqI dy brfbr jF Aus qoN vwD sI.

      ajoky kMijLAUmr siBafcfr df PYlfa ikMnf ku vwzf hY, ies df aMdfjLf asIN awgy idwqy aMkiVaF qoN lf skdy hF. sMn 2006 ivwc dunIaF Br ivwc lokF ny vsqF aqy syvfvF dI KRIdoProKq `qy 305 Krb jF 30[5 itRlIan zflr (2008 dI dr muqfbk) Krc kIqy sn. ies rkm ivwc lokF vloN Kfxy aqy irhfiesL vrgIaF muZlIaF loVF dy nfl nfl kfrF, kMipAUtrF, tYlIivXnF, hvfeI sPrF, vwzy vwzy GrF afid `qy kIqy Krcy sLfml hn. sMn 2008 ivwc dunIaf Br ivwc 6[8 kRoV gwzIaF, 8[5 kRoV PirwjF, 29[7 kRoV kMipAUtr aqy 1[2 arb mobfeIl jF sYWl Pon KRIdy gey sn. muZlIaF loVF qoN bfhrI Kpq `qy Krcy jFdy pYisaF bfry smJ bxfAux leI awgy idwqy aMkVy hor shfeI ho skdy hn:

 

* blUmbrg ibjinsvIk anusfr sMn 2007 ivwc dunIaf Br ivwc afeIs kRIm dI snaq 59 arb (iblIan) zflr dy brfbr sI. ies irport ivwc anumfn lfieaf igaf sI ik sMn 2010 ivwc sMsfr Br ivwc afeIskRIm dI ivkrI 65 arb zflr qwk phuMc jfeygI.

afeI sI afeI aYWs kfm `qy CpI iek irport anusfr, sMn 2008 ivwc mykawp aqy ies nfl sMbMDq vsqF (kOsmYtk aqy tuafiltrIjL) dI pRcUn ivkrI 333[5 arb (iblIan) zflr dy brfbr sI.

* vrzvfc ieMstIicAUt vloN 2010 ivc CfpI geI styt afP dI vrlz nfmI irport anusfr sMn 2008 ivwc boql-bMd pfxI dI snaq 60 arb (iblIan) zflr dy brfbr sI aqy ies sfl ies snaq ny 241 arb lItr boql-bMd pfxI vyicaf sI.

* AupRokq irport anusfr hI pflqU jfnvrF dy Kfxy dI snaq hr sfl 42 arb zflr kmfAuNdI hY.

 

iehnF aMkiVaF dy shI arQ sfnUM qF hI smJ afAuxgy jy asIN iehnF nUM dunIaF dy bhuqy lokF dIaF muZlIaF loVF pUrIaF krn leI loVINdy Dn dy sMdrB ivwc dyKIey. vrzvfc ieMstIicAUt dI 2004 ivwc CpI iek irport anusfr dunIaF Br ivwc sfry lokF dy pIx leI  sfP pfxI muhweIaf krfAux leI sflfnf 10 arb zflr hor dI loV hY, dunIaf ivwc srvivafpk sfKrqf dy insLfny `qy phuMcx leI sflfnf 5 arb zflr hor dI loV hY aqy dunIaf Br ivwcoN BuwK aqy apUrx Kurfk dI smwisaf df Kfqmf krn leI sflfnf 19 arb zflr hor dI loV hY. ies df Bfv ieh hoieaf ik sfl ivwc ijMny pYsy pflqU jfnvrF dI snaq kmfAuNdI hY, Aus nfloN Gwt pYisaF ivwc dunIaF dy sfry lokF nUM pIx leI sfP pfxI phuMcfieaf jf skdf hY, srvivafpk sfKrqf pRdfn kIqI jf skdI hY aqy BuwK aqy apUrx Kurfk dy isLkfr lokF nUM rotI idwqI jf skdI hY.

          bysLwk lok sdIaF qoN afpxIaF loVF dI pUrqI leI vsqF/syvfvF df iesqymfl krdy afey hn, pr kMijLAUmirjLm siBafcfr dI sLurUafq 1950ivaF ivwc mMnI jFdI hY aqy Aus smyN qoN lY ky hux qwk ies ivwc nftkI pwDr df psfr hoieaf hY. sMn 2006 ivwc CpI vrlz bYNk dI iek irport dy hvfly nfl pItr zfvirn afpxI ikqfb dI sLYzo afP knspsLn ivwc ilKdf hY ik sMn 2006 ivwc dunIaf Br ivwc qjfrqI vsqF dy inrXfq dI kImq 100 Krb (10 itRlIan) zflr sI jdoN ik sMn 2000 ivwc ieh kImq 60 Krb (6 itRlIan) zflr sI. sMn 2000 ivclI qjfrqI vsqF dy inrXfq dI ieh kImq sMn 1948 dI ies kImq qoN 100 guxF ijLafdf sI. vrlz vfc ieMstIicAUt dI 2004 ivwc CpI irport anusfr sMn 2000 ivwc inwjI Kpq `qy KrcI geI rkm 200 Krb (20 itRlIan) zflr dy brfbr sI jdoN ik sMn 1960 ivwc ieh rkm, 48 Krb (4[8 itRlIan) zflr dy brfbr sI. inwjI Kpq ivwc Auh rkm igxI jFdI hY, ijhVI GrF dI pwDr `qy vsqF aqy syvfvF dI KRId leI KrcI jFdI hY. iehnF aMkiVaF df Bfv ieh hoieaf ik sMn 1960 aqy 2000 ivckfr sMsfr Br ivwc inwjI Kpq ivwc cfr guxF df vfDf hoieaf sI.

          jy asIN ipCly 50-60 sflF dOrfn dunIaf Br ivwc kfrF dI igxqI ivwc hoey vfDy dy aMkVy dyKIey qF kMijLAUmirjLm siBafcfr dy psfr dI qsvIr hor spsLt ho jFdI hY. zfvirn anusfr, sMn 1950 ivwc amrIkf ivwc rijstrz kfrF dI igxqI 4 kRoV 90 lwK (49 imlIan) sI. ies qoN bfad ies igxqI ivwc lgfqfr vfDf huMdf igaf. sMn 1960 ivwc amrIkf ivwc rijstrz kfrF dI igxqI 7 kRoV 40 lwK (74 imlIan) dy nyVy sI jo ik sMn 1970 ivwc 10 kRoV 80 lwK (108 imlIan)  ho geI aqy sMn 2000 ivwc ieh igxqI 21 kRoV 30 lwK `qy phuMc geI. vrlzvfc ieMstIicAUt dI 2004 dI irport anusfr sMn 2003 ivwc amrIkf ivwc pRfeIvyt kfrF dI igxqI lfiesMssLudf zrfeIvrF dI igxqI nfloN ijLafdf sI.

          bysLwk kuJ sfl pihlF qwk kfrF dI ies qrHF dI vrqNo pwCm dy amIr mulkF qwk hI sImq sI, pr hux kfrF dI igxqI ivkfssLIl dysLF ivwc bhuq qyjLI nfl vwD rhI hY. AupRokq irport anusfr 1990ivaF dy aKIr ivwc cIn ivwc 1000 lokF mgr 10 kfrF sn pr sMn 2000 qoN cIn ivwc kfrF dI igxqI ivwc lgfqfr vfDf ho irhf hY. sMn 2002 ivwc cIn ivwc 1 kRoV kfrF sn.  sMn 2003 ivwc cIn ivwc kfrF dI igxqI ivwc hr rojL 11000 kfrF df vfDf hoieaf sI. ieMtrnYsLnl aYnrjI eyjMsI df aMdfjLf hY ik 2005-2030 ivckfr cIn ivwc kfrF dI igxqI ivwc 7 guxF df vfDf hovygf aqy kfrF aqy trwkF dI kuwl igxqI 27 kRoV (270 imlIan) ho jfvygI.

          dunIaf Br ivwc mIt dI Kpq dI khfxI vI kuwJ ies qrHF dI hI hY. zfvirn anusfr ies smyN dunIaf Br ivwc mIt df Auqpfdn 26 kRoV (260 imlIan) mItirk tn hY aqy ies ivwc lgfqfr vfDf ho irhf hY. mIt df ieh Auqpfdn sMn 1950 dy mukfbly 5 guxF vwD  hY.  dunIaf ivwc sB qoN vwD mIt dI Kpq (6[8 kRoV jF 68 imlIan mItirk tn sflfnf) cIn ivwc hY aqy ies sMbMD ivwc dUsrf nMbr amrIkf df hY ijwQy mIt dI sflfnf Kpq 3[8 kRoV (38 imlIan) mItirk tn hY. pr jy ies Kpq nUM jIa pRqI Kpq dy ihsfb nfl dyiKaf jfvy qF mIt dI Kpq ivwc amrIkf cIn qoN ikqy awgy hY. cIn ivwc mIt dI sflfnf pRqI jIa Kpq 52 iklogRfm hY jdoN ik amrIkf ivwc ieh dr 125 iklogRfm hY. Bfrq ivwc mIt dI Kpq iehnF dohF dysLF dy mukfbly kfPI Gwt hY. sMn 2002 ivwc Bfrq ivwc jIa pRqI mIt dI Kpq isrP 5 iklogRfm sI. pr ijs qrHF Bfrq ivwc mkzOnlz, pIjLf hwt aqy ies qrHF dy hor Pfst PUz rYstorYNtF dI igxqI vD rhI hY, Aus nUM dyKidaF asIN kih skdy hF ik nyV BivwK ivwc AuWQy jIa pRqI mIt dI Kpq vDx dI vwzI sMBfvnf hY.

            iewQy ieh gwl not krn vflI hY ik bysLwk ipCly 4-5 dhfikaF ivwc vsqF aqy syvfvF dI Kpq ivwc hoey ies qrHF dy vfDy ipWCy dunIaf dI vD rhI abfdI ny afpxI BUimkf inBfeI hY, pr Kpq ivwc hoieaf ieh vfDf isrP abfdI krky hI nhIN hY sgoN ies ivwc vwD rhy kMijLAUmirjLm dI vwzI BUimkf hY. zfvirn anusfr, sMn 1960 aqy 2000 ivckfr inwjI Kpq `qy hox vfly KricaF ivwc cfr guxF qoN vwD df vfDf hoieaf hY jdoN ik ies smyN dOrfn dunIaf dI abfdI isrP do guxf hI vDI hY. jy Kpq ivwc hoey vfDy nUM vsqF dy vwK vwK KyqrF dy ihsfb nfl dyiKaf jfvy qF sfnUM pqf lwgdf hY ik keI KyqrF ivwc Kpq aqy abfdI ivwc hoey vfDy ivwc kfPI vwzf Prk hY. Audfhrn leI amrIkf dy mrdmsLumfrI nfl sMbMDq ibAuro anusfr1950 aqy sMn 2005 dOrfn dunIaf dI abfdI ivwc ZfeI guxF dy krIb vfDf hoieaf sI. pr vrlzvfc dI 2004 dI irport anusfr ies smyN dOrfn DfqF dy Auqpfdn ivwc Cy guxF, qyl dI Kpq ivwc awT guxF aqy kudrqI gYs dI Kpq ivwc cOdF guxF df vfDf hoieaf sI.

          kMijLAUmirjLm bfry not krn vflI iek hor gwl hY vsqF aqy syvfvF dI Kpq ivwc nf-brfbrI. ieh nf-brfbrI dunIaf dy vwK vwK iKwiqaF ivckfr hY aqy nfl hI iek hI iKwqy ivwc rihx vfly vwK vwK afmdn-sLRyxIaF nfl sMbMD rwKx vfly lokF ivckfr hY. sMn 2005 ivc CpI vrlz bYNk dI iek irport dy afDfr `qy zfvirn ilKdf hY ik dunIaf dI inwjI Kpq dy kuwl KricaF df 60 PIsdI ihwsf amrIkf aqy XUrp vloN Krc kIqf jFdf hY jdoN ik iehnF dohF iKwiqaF dI abfdI dunIaf dI kuwl abfdI dy 12 PIsdI qoN Gwt hY. vrlzvfc dIaF 2004 aqy 2010 ivwc CpIaF irportF  anusfr, ies hI qrHF sMn 2006 ivwc dunIaf ivclI Kpq dy KricaF (knspsLn aYkspYNzIcrjL) df 78 PIsdI ihwsf dunIaf dy vwD afmdn vfly 65 dysLF ny Kricaf sI jdoN ik iehnF dysLF dI abfdI dunIaf dI kwul abfdI df isrP 16 PIsdI sI. iekwly amrIkf ivwc lokF ny Aus sfl KpqkfrI vsqF `qy 97 Krb (9[7 itRlIan) zflr Krc kIqy sn. ieh rkm dunIaf dy Kpq dy kuwl KricaF df 32 PIsdI ihwsf bxdI hY jdoN ik amrIkf dI abfdI dunIaf dI kuwl abfdI df isrP 5 PIsdI ihwsf hY. amrIkf, kYnyzf, astRylIaf, jfpfn aqy pwCmI XUrp dI abfdI dunIaf dI abfdI df 15 PIsdI bxdI hY, jdoN ik ieh dysL kuwl imlf ky sfl ivwc dunIaf ivwc almInIam dy kuwl Auqpfdn df 61 PIsdI, iswky dy kuwl Auqpfdn df 60 PIsdI, qFby dy kuwl Auqpfdn df 59 PIsdI aqy stIl dy kuwl Auqpfdn df 49 PIsdI ihwsf Kpq krdy hn.

          bysLwk Bfrq aqy cIn vrgy dysLF ivwc vI ipCly kuJ sflF dOrfn kMijLAUmr klfs ivwc sLfml lokF dI igxqI ivwc vfDf hoieaf hY pr ieh igxqI iehnF dysLF dI kuwl abfdI df bhuq Cotf ihwsf hY. ijvyN pihlF dwisaf jf cuwkf hY ik sMn 2004 qwk dunIaf ivwc kMijLAUmr klfs ivwc sLfml 1[7 arb lokF ivwc cIn dy 24 kRoV aqy Bfrq dy 12 kRoV lok sLfml sn. vrlzvfc dI 2004 dI irport anusfr kMijLAUmr klfs ivwc sLfml cIn aqy Bfrq dy ieh lok afpxy afpxy dysLF dI kuwl abfdI df kRmvfr isrP 19 PIsdI aqy 12 PIsdI ihwsf hI bxdy sn jdoN ik amrIkf dy 84 PIsdI, jfpfn dy 95 PIsdI, PrFs dy 89 PIsdI aqy XU ky dy 86 PIsdI lok kMijLAUmr klfs ivwc sLfml sn.

          jy asIN vwK vwK vsqF dI Kpq nUM afDfr bxf ky dyKIey qF vsqF aqy syvfvF dI Kpq ivwc nf-brfbrqf df pfVf hor vI vwzf idKfeI idMdf hY. AUrjf dI Kpq bfry nysLn mfstr kfm aqy dunIaf dI abfdI bfry nysLnjL afnlfeIn `qy idwqy 2009 dy aMkiVaF muqfbk dunIaf dI qyl dI rojLfnf kuwl Kpq df 22[6 PIsdI ihwsf amrIkf ivwc Kpq huMdf hY jdoN ik amrIkf dI abfdI dunIaf dI abfdI df 5 PIsdI hY. amrIkf, jfpfn, jrmnI, kYnyzf, PrFs aqy XU[ky[ iml ky dunIaf dI qyl dI rojLfnf Kpq df 37[7 PIsdI ihwsf Kpq krdy hn jdoN ik iehnF dysLF dI kuwl abfdI dunIaf dI kuwl abfdI dy 10 PIsdI qoN Gwt hY. dUsry pfsy Bfrq ivwc dunIaF dI rojLfnf qyl dI Kpq df 3[6 PIsdI ihwsf Kpq huMdf hY jdoN ik Bfrq dI abfdI dunIaf dI kuwl abfdI df 17 PIsdI ihwsf bxdI hY. vrlzvfc dI 2004 dI irport ivwc idwqy kfgjL dI vrqoN bfry aMkiVaF qoN sfnUM pqf cwldf hY ik iek amrIkn sfl ivwc 300 iklogRfm qoN vwD kfgjL vrqdf hY jdoN ik iek BfrqI 4 iklogRfm. aPrIkf ivwc 20 aijhy dysL hn ijwQy sflfnf jIa pRqI kfgjL dI vrqoN 1 iklogRfm qoN vI Gwt hY.  ies hI qrHF iek aOsq amrIkn sfl ivwc 22 iklogRfm almInIam vrqdf hY jdoN ik iek aOsq BfrqI 2 iklogRfm aqy iek aOsq aPrIkn 1 iklogRfm qoN vI Gwt. vrlzvfc dI 2010 dI irport anusfr amIr mulkF ivwc pflqU rwKy do jrmn sLYprz kuwqy sfl ivwc AuWny vsIilaF df iesqymfl krdy hn, ijMny vsIly bMglfdysL df iek visLMdf sfl ivwc vrqdf hY. XUrp dI PrYNzjL afP dI arQ nfmI sMsQf vloN sMn 2009 ivwc pRkfsLq hoeI iek irport anusfr,  amIr mulkF ivwc rihx vfly lok grIb mulkF ivwc rihx vfly lokF dy mukfbly 10 guxF vwD kudrqI vsIilaF dI vrqoN krdy hn. aOsq pwDr `qy AuWqrI amrIkf df iek visLMdf hr rojL 90 iklogRfm, XUrp df iek visLMdf 45 iklogRfm aqy aPrIkf df iek visLMdf 10 iklogRfm vsIly vrqdf hY.

          agly ihwsy ivwc jdoN asIN kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn bfry gwl krFgy qF sfnUM dunIaf ivwc vsqF aqy syvfvF dI Kpq ivclI ieh nf-brfbrqf iDafn ivwc rwKxI cfhIdI hY. ieh nf-brfbrI sfzI ieh aihsfs krn ivwc mdd krygI ik kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nMU hox vfly nuksfn leI vwzI ijLMmyvfrI amIr mulkF aqy amIr lokF dy isr afAuNdI hY.

 

kMijLAUmirjLm aqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn

 

          kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nMU hox vfly nuksfn bfry smJx leI ieh jLrUrI hY ik vsqF dy Auqpfdn, AuhnF dI ivkrI, AuhnF dI vrqoN aqy iPr AuhnF nUM kUVy dy Zyr `qy suwtx dy sfry kfrj nUM iDafn ivwc rwiKaf jfvy nf ik isrP AuhnF dI KRId aqy vrqoN nUM hI. ies dy nfl hI ieh vI Xfd rwiKaf jfvy ik kMijLAUmirjLm df kfrj iek  sQfnk kfrj nhIN sgoN ieh iek globl nYWtvrk (ivsLv islisly) df ihwsf hY. awj iksy vsq dy Auqpfdn leI kwcf mfl dunIaf dy iek ihwsy ivwc kwiZaf/pYdf kIqf jFdf hY, Aus cIjL nUM bxfieaf iksy hor ihwsy ivwc jFdf hY aqy Aus dI Kpq iksy hor ihwsy ivwc kIqI jFdI hY. keI kysF ivwc Aus nUM kUVy dy Zyr AuWqy suwtx leI iksy hor ihwsy nUM Byijaf jFdf hY.  kMijLAUmirjLm nUM ies vwzy sMdrB ivwc dyK ky hI asIN ies kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly smuwcy nuksfn df shI muwlFkx kr skFgy.

          kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vflf sB qoN vwzf nuksfn ieh hY ik ies kfrn asIN DrqI dy vsIilaF dI aMDfDuMd vrqoN kr rhy hF. XUrp dI PrYNzjL afP dI arQ nfmI sMsQf dI 2009 ivwc CpI irport ies bfry bhuq vDIaf jfxkfrI idMdI hY. ies irport anusfr hr sfl dunIaf dy visLMdy 60 arb (iblIan) tn kudrqI vsIilaF dI vrqoN krdy hn. iehnF vsIilaF ivwc KyqIbfVI aqy smuMdrF aqy jMglF qoN pRfpq hox vfly aqy DrqI hyToN kwZy jfx vfly vsIly sLfml hn. KyqIbfVI, smuMdrF aqy jMglF qoN imlx vfly vsIly (mwCIaF, itMbr afid) dubfrf pYdf kIqy jf skdy hn jdoN ik DrqI hyToN kwZy jfx vfly vsIly ( qyl, kolf, DfqF aqy hor Kixj pdfrQ) dubfrf pYdf nhIN kIqy jf skdy. kudrqI vsIilaF dI ieh vrqoN qyjLI nfl vD rhI hY. sMn 1980 ivwc dunIaf ivwc 40 arb (iblIan) tn vsIilaF dI vrqoN kIqI geI sI aqy sMn 2005 ivwc ieh igxqI zyZ guxF vwD ky 58  arb (iblIan) tn ho geI sI. ies dy nfl iek gwl hor not krn vflI hY ik iehnF vsIilaF qwk phuMc krn leI DrqI ivwcoN hor smwgrI kwZI jF vwK kIqI jFdI hY pr Auh vsqF dy Auqpfdn ivwc vrqI nhIN jFdI. ieh smwgrI 40 arb (iblIan) tn sflfnf dy brfbr bxdI hY. ies qrHF kuwl imlf ky asIN hr sfl DrqI qoN 100 arb (iblIan) tn dy brfbr dy vsIilaF dI vrqoN krdy hF.

          bhuq sfry vfqfvrn mfhrF df ivcfr hY ik DrqI dy vsIilaF dI ies pwDr dI vrqoN sstynybl nhIN Bfv DrqI dI Bfr Jwlx dI smrQf qoN ijLafdf hY. vrlzvfc dI 2010 ivwc CpI irport anusfr ies smyN dunIaF dy visLMdy DrqI dI smrQf qoN 1[3 guxF ijLafdf vsIly vrq rhy hn. ies smyN DrqI dy eIkoisstm qoN imlx vflIaF 60 PIsdI syvfvF - ijvyN vfqfvrn df inXMqRn, qfjLy pfxI dI AuplwBqf, rihMd-KUhMd nfl nijwTx dI Xogqf, smuMdr qoN imlx vfly Kfxy afid -  df jF qF nuksfn ho irhf hY jF AuhnF dI smrQf qoN vwD vrqoN ho rhI hY. pItr zfvirn ies sMbMD ivwc kuJ hor aMkVy pysL krdf hY:

 

* 1970 qoN lY ky hux qwk aYtlFitk blUiPn itAUnf mwCI dI igxqI 80 PIsdI Gwt geI hY.

* ipCly cfr dhfikaF dOrfn kYnyzf dy pUrbI qwt qoN imlx vflI kOz mwCI dI igxqI 99 PIsdI Gwt geI hY aqy ieh mwCI hux Kqm hox dy Kqry hyT (ienzyNjrz) mMnI jFdI hY.

* qpq-KMz ivwc hr sfl 3 kRoV 20 lwK eykV jMglF (trOpIkl rynPOrYsts) df Kfqmf ho irhf hY. iekwly brfjLIl ivwc hI hr sfl 70 lwK eykV jMgl aqy ieMzonysLIaf ivwc 50 lwK  eykV jMgl Kqm ho rhy hn.

* kdy arl smuMdr dunIaf dIaF sB qoN vwzIaF JIlF ivwcoN cOQy nMbr `qy afAuNdf sI, pr ies dy pfxI dI ibjlI Auqpfdn aqy KyqIbfVI leI kIqI jFdI vrqoN kfrn ieh ipCly iqMn dhfikaF ivwc suwk ky awDf rih igaf hY.

 

ivwkIpIzIaf anusfr qpq-KMz ivwc jMglF dy Kfqmy kfrn dunIaF dy jfnvrF aqy pOidaF dIaF jfqIaF df vwzI pwDr `qy Kfqmf ho irhf hY ikAuNik jfnvrF aqy pOidaF dIaF awDIaF qoN vwD jfqIaF qpq-KMz dy jMglF ivwc imldIaF hn. vsIilaF dI Kpq dy sMbMD ivwc keI hor mfhrF df anumfn hY ik jy dunIaf dy sfry lok iek aOsq amrIkn dy brfbr vsqF aqy syvfvF df iesqymfl krn lwg pYx qF ies nfl pYdf hox vflI vsqF aqy syvfvF dI mMg nUM pUrf krn leI cfr hor DrqIaF dI loV pvygI.

          DrqI dy kudrqI vsIilaF dI aMDfDuMd vrqoN dy sMbMD ivwc dUsrI gwl ieh hY ik iehnF nUM DrqI ivwcoN kwZx jF DrqI `qy pYdf krn dy kfrj nfl vwzI pwDr AuWqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn huMdf hY. ies sMbMD ivwc kuJ AudfhrnF pysL hn. XUrp dI PrYNzjL afP dI arQ sMsQf anusfr nfeIjIrIaf aPrIkf ivwc sB qoN vwD qyl pYdf krn vflf dysL hY aqy dunIaf ivwc qyl pYdf krn vfly dysLF ivwcoN ieh igaFrvyN nMbr `qy afAuNdf hY. sMn 2004 ivwc nfeIjLIrIaf ivwc krUz afiel df rojLfnf Auqpfdn 25 lwK bYrl sI. kihMdy hn ik kdy iewQoN df nfeIjr zYltf nfeIjIrIaf df anfj-BMzfr huMdf sI. pr ies smyN qyl kwZx nfl sMbMDq vwK vwK kfrjF dOrfn nfeIjr zYltf dI DrqI pUrI qrHF brbfd ho cuwkI hY. gYs PlyairMg (qyl kwZdy smyN axcfhI/byloVI gYs nUM msLfl dI lft bfl ky nsLt krn df kfrj) kfrn slPr zfieaOksfeIz, nfeItrojn zfeIaOksfeIz vrgy keI jLihrIly pdfrQF df imsLrn, bYnjLfpfeIrIn aqy zfieaOksfeIn vrgy kYNsr lfAux vfly pdfrQ aqy bYnjLIn, tolUeIn, hfeIzrojn slPlfeIz vrgy axbly qyl dy qwq  vfqfvrn ivwc Cwzy jf rhy hn. nqIjy vjoN ies ielfky dy lokF ivwc sfh aqy PyPiVaF dI keI qrHF dIaF bImfrIaF dI bhuqfq hY. ies dy nfl hI vfqfvrn ivwc CwzIaF geIaF slPr zfeIaOksfeIz aqy nfeItrojn aOksfeIz gYsF kfrn ies ielfky nUM qyjLfbI mINh (eyisz ryn) df sfhmxf krnf pYNdf hY. ies qyjLfbI mINh ny ielfky dIaF JIlF, ndIaF aqy nfilaF ivwc qyjLfb Gol idwqf hY aqy AWQoN dI bnspqI nUM nuksfn phuMcfieaf hY. ies ielfky dIaF iemfrqF dIaF CwqF hOlI hOlI qyjLfb nfl KfDIaF jf rhIaF hn. ieh mMinaf jFdf hY ik nfeIjr zYltf df ielfkf dunIaf Br ivwc pYtrol kfrn burI qrHF nuksfny gey pMj eIkoisstmF ivwcoN iek hY. qyl kwZx kfrn nfeIjIrIaf ivwc vfqfvrn df jo nuksfn ho irhf hY, Aus df asr isrP nfeIjIrIaf dy lokF qwk sImq nhIN sgoN sfrI dunIaf dy lok ies dI mfr hyT hn. 27 apRYl 2010 nUM ieMzIpYNizt dy sfeIt `qy CpI iek irport anusfr nfeIjIrIaf ivwc gYs PlyairMg kfrn hr rojL 2[5 arb (iblIan) stYNzrz ikAUibk Puwt gYs bflI jf rhI hY. ies dy nqIjy vjoN vwzI mfqrf ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF vfqfvrn ivwc CwzIaF jf rhIaF hn ijhVIaF sfrI dunIaf dy vfqfvrn qy asr pfAuNdIaF hn.

          KfxF ivwcoN DfqF kwZx df kfrj vfqfvrn nUM keI qrHF nuksfn phuMcfAuNdf hY. amrIkf dI ienvfirmYNto pRotYksLn eyjMsI dy sfeIt `qy  imldI jfxkfrI anusfr KfxF ivwcoN Dfq kwZx leI bhuq sfrI DrqI nUM puwtxf pYNdf hY, mYtfilk slPfeIzjL dI aOksIzysLn kfrn qyjLfbI mfdf pYdf huMdf hY ijhVf DrqI hyTly aqy DrqI AuWprly pfxI nUM pRdUsLq kr skdf hY, DrqI nUM Korf lwg skdf hY aqy ies nfl DrqI AuWprly pfxI pRdUsLq ho skdf hY. DrqI nUM Korf lwgx kfrn DrqI dI AuprlI qih (tOp sOiel) aqy Aus ivcly qwqF dy iek QF qoN dUjI QF nUM qbdIl hox kfrn imwtI dI bxqr, bnspqI aqy bnspqI nUM dubfrf AugfAux dy kfrj AuWpr mfVy asr pY skdy hn. ies dy nfl nfl KfxF ivwc vrqy jFdy keI qrHF dy rsfiexk pdfrQ afly duafly dy vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcf skdy hn. ies nukqy nUM hor spsLt krn leI asIN inAU XOrk tfeImjL ivwc 14 jUn 2010 nUM sony dIaF KfxF bfry CpI iek ivsiqRq irport ivwcoN kuJ  jfxkfrI pysL krFgy. ies irport anusfr iek aONs sonf kwZx leI qkrIbn 30 tn kwcI Dfq puwtI jFdI hY aqy keI KfxF ivwc ieh mfqrf 100 tn qwk dwsI jFdI hY. keI vwzIaF KfxF ivwc hr rojL qkrIbn 5 lwK tn imwtI AulwdI/plwdI jFdI hY. iPr kwcI Dfq ivwcoN sonf vwK krn leI Aus AuWpr pqly sfeInfeIz df iCVkfa kIqf jFdf hY. bhuqy ivigafnIaF df ieh mwq hY ik Duwp ivwc sfeInfeIz nsLt ho jFdf hY aqy jy sfeInfeIz df Gol bhuq ijLafdf hlkf hovy qF ieh hfnIkfrn nhIN huMdf. pr amrIkf dy jIElOjIkl srvy vloN sMn 2000 ivwc kIqy iek aiDan ivwc ieh dfavf kIqf igaf sI ik sfeInfeIz hor jLihrIly rUpF ivwc bdl skdf hY aqy keI icr qwk mOjUd rih skdf hY Kfs krky TMZy vfqfvrn ivwc. kwcI Dfq ivwcoN sonf kwZx bfad ijhVI rihMd KUhMd bwcdI hY Auh keI qrHF nfl vfqfvrn leI nuksfndyh ho skdI hY. ies irport ivwc amrIkf dI ienvfiermYNtl pRotYksLn eyjMsI dy hvfly nfl ikhf igaf hY, “sony dIaF KfxF smyq, DfqF dIaF kuJ KfxF prmfxU rihMd-KUhMd dy BMzfrF dy brfbr hn aqy ijhnF dI dyKBfl krn dI loV hmysLF dI smwisaf bx geI hY. hfrz-rOk mfeIinMg amrIkf dI iksy vI hor snaq nfloN vwD jLihrIlI rihMd KUMhd pYdf krdI hY.[[[ eyjMsI ny ipCly sfl aMdfjLf lfieaf sI ik  DfqF dIaF KfxF dI sPfeI krn dI lfgq 54 arb (iblIan) zflr qwk phuMc skdI hY.”

         

irport ivwc ieh vI dwisaf igaf hY ik ies smyN dunIaf df 70 PIsdI sonf ivkfssLIl dysLF ivwc kwiZaf jFdf hY. aflockF df dfavf hY ik iehnF dysLF ivwc sony dIaF KfxF dIaF mflk kMpnIaF aijhy ZMg vrq rhIaF hn ijhVy Auh amIr dysLF ivwc nhIN vrq skdIaF. ijvyN ik KfxF qoN pYdf hox vflI rihMd-KUhMd nUM  dirafvF, KfVIaF aqy smuMdrF ivwc suwtxf. ies irport ivwcoN ivkfssLIl dysLF ivwc sony dIaF KfxF nfl sMbMDq vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux dIaF kuJ GtnfvF sMKyp ivwc pysL hn:

 

1[   jUn 2010 ivwc iPlpIn dy iek sUby ny dunIaf ivwc pMjvyN nMbr `qy afAuNdI kYnyzf afDfirq kMpnI plysr zom AuWpr mukwdmf kIqf sI ik ies kMpnI ny sony dI Kfx ivwcoN pYdf hox vflI rihMd-KUMhd suwt ky iek diraf, KfVI aqy mUMgy dI ctfn (korl rIP) nUM nsLt kIqf sI.   ies dy juafb ivwc plysr zom df kihxf sI ik AuhnF ny ies smwisaf `qy kfbU pf ilaf sI aqy ies dy hwl leI 7 kRoV (70 imlIan) zflr Krc kIqy sn aqy 15 lwK zflr muafvjLy dy idwqy sn.

 

2[ sMn 2001 ivwc astRylIaf dI kMpnI bI aYWc pI iblItn kMpnI ny pfpf inAU igMnI ivwc 2400 eykV ryn PorYst nUM nsLt krn bfad Eky tYzI nfmI Kfx vyc idwqI sI.

 

3[  inAUmONt kMpnI vloN AuWqrI pIrU dy Xfnfkocf ielfky ivwc clfeI jFdI Kfx ny cfrgfhF aqy suMdr ZlfxF dI DrqI nUM ryqy rMgIaF phfVIaF ivwc qbdIl kr idwqf hY. iehnF ryqy rMgIaF phfVIaF AuWpr pfeIp ivCfey gey hn qF ik ies imwtI `coN sonf vwK krn leI ies AuWpr sfeInfeIz df lwKF tn Gol iCVkfieaf jf sky.

 

4[ XUnfeItz nysLnjL ienvfiermYNt pRogrfm anusfr 1985-2000 dy ivckfr sfeInfeIz vflI rihMd KUhMd dy drjn qoN vwD BMzfr ZwT gey sn. iehnF ivwc sB qoN vwzI durGtnf sMn 2000 ivwc rumfnIaf ivwc vfprI sI jdoN Kfx dI rihMd KUMhd zfnUby ndI dI iek shfiek ndI ivwc izg peI sI ijs kfrn 1000 tn qoN vwD mwCIaF mfrIaF geIaF sn aqy ies kfrn pYdf hoeI sfeInfeIz dI qrMg (plUm) 1600 mIl df sPr krky kfly sfgr (blYk sIa) qwk phuMc geI sI.

 

5[ sMn 1995 ivwc igMnI dI iek Kfx qoN sfeInfeIz vflI 7 lwK 90 hjLfr gYln rihMd - KUhMd aYskIbo ndI dI iek shfiek ndI ivwc izwg peI sI.

 

          ipCly kuJ smyN ivwc mnuwK vloN DrqI AuWpr kIqI jFdI KyqIbfVI ivwc iek nftkI qbdIlI afeI hY. awj dI KyqI ivwc KfdF, kItnfsLk aqy bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF, pfxI afid dI vrqoN bhuq vD geI hY. pihlF dy mukfbly awj jLmIn ivwc sfl ivwc vwD qoN vwD PslF AugfeIaF jf rhIaF hn. BFq-suBFqI PslF dI KyqI krn dI QF iek hI Psl AugfAux df ruJfx jLor PV igaf hY, ijs nUM mfhrF ny monoklcr df nF idwqf hY. hux KyqI iksfn vloN afpxIaF loVF dI pUrqI leI nhIN sgoN mMzI leI kIqI jFdI hY. KyqIbfVI vflI jLmIn dy bhuq sfry ihwsy dI mflkI lokF dI QF vwzIaF kfrporysLnF kol af geI hY aqy kfrporysLnF KyqIbfVI afpxI inwjI loV dI pUrqI leI nhIN sgoN munfPf kmfAux leI kr rhIaF hn.  keI QFvF `qy bysLwk jLmIn dI mflkI lokF kol hY pr Auh jLmIn `qy PslF vwzIaF kfrporysLnF leI AugfAuNdy hn. nqIjy vjoN KyqF ivwcoN AugfeI jfx vflI pYdfvfr bfry PYsly vwzIaF kfrporysLnF hI krdIaF hn. KyqIbfVI ivwc afeIaF ies qrHF dIaF qbdIlIaF ny KyqIbfVI kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn ivwc iqwKf vfDf kIqf hY. ies sMbMD ivwc eyQy bhuq sfry aMkVy dyx dI loV nhIN. pMjfbI pVHn vflf qkrIbn hr pfTk jfxdf hY ik awDI sdI pihlF pMjfb ivwc sLurU hoey hry ienklfb dy qjrby ny pMjfb dy vfqfvrn df iks qrHF nuksfn kIqf hY. ies qjrby kfrn pMjfb dI DrqI KfdF dI amlI ho geI hY; pMjfb ivwc DrqI hyTly pfxI dI pwDr hr sfl hyTF jf rhI hY; PslF `qy vrqIaF jFdIaF kItnfsLk aqy bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF ny DrqI hyTly pfxI nUM pRdUsLq kr idwqf hY aqy pMjfb df nrmf AugfAux vflf Kyqr kYNsr vfly Kyqr vjoN jfixaf jFdf hY.

          Kfx vflIaF vsqF dI vwD rhI mMg nUM pUrf krn leI DrqI dy aiq jLrUrI jMglF df sPfieaf kr nvIN DrqI KyqIbfVI aDIn ilaFdI jf rhI hY. ies sMbMD ivwc pflm Eiel dy Auqpfdn nfl sMbMDq kuJ aMkVy hYrfn krn vfly hn. afeI bI tfiemjL XU[ ky[ dy grIn sYksLn ivwc CpI iek irport anusfr pflm Eiel dI vrqoN keI qrHF dIaF kMijLAUmr vsqF ivwc kIqI jFdI hY ijvyN ik cfklyt, bRykPfst sIrIal, mfrjrIn, kRIm cIjL, Evn icps, hor keI qrHF dI miTafeIaF aqy Kfxy, sfbx, iztYrjYNt, aqy bfieEiPAUl. nqIjy vjoN hr sfl 4 kRoV tn pflm Eiel pYdf huMdf hY ijs dI kImq 20 arb (iblIan) zflr dy brfbr bxdI hY. ieMzonysLIaf aqy mlysLIaf dunIaf ivwc sB qoN vwD pflm Eiel pYdf krn vfly dysL hn. 1980ivaF qoN lY ky pflm Eiel dI KyqI hyT afAux vflI jLmIn dy rkby ivwc iqMn guxF df vfDf hoieaf hY aqy sMn 2007 qwk ieh rkbf 1[4 kRoV (14 imlIan) hYktyar dy brfbr sI.  sMn 2007 ivwc CpI grIn pIs dI iek irport anusfr sMn 1995 aqy 2005 ivwckfr iekwly ieMzonysLIaf ivwc pflm Eiel dI KyqI aDIn afAux vflI jLmIn ivwc iqMn guxF vfDf hoieaf sI aqy sMn 2007 qwk AuWQy 60 lwK hYktyar dy krIb DrqI pflm Eiel dI KyqI aDIn af cuwkI sI aqy lwKF hYktyar hor DrqI nUM ies KyqI aDIn ilafAux dI Xojnf sI.

          pflm Eiel dI KyqI leI ieh sfrI jLmIn ieMzonysLIaf dy jMglF df sPfieaf krky iqafr kIqI jf rhI hY. iehnF jMglF dI DrqI dy eIkoisstm ivwc bhuq mhwqvpUrn QF hY. ieh jMgl bhuq sfry jIv-jMqUaF aqy pOidaF dy Gr hn. lwKF lok Kfxy, pfxI, dvfeIaF aqy afpxIaF hor muZlIaF loVF leI iehnF jMglF AuWpr inrBr krdy hn.  DrqI `qy mOsmF dI qbdIlI (klfeImyt cyNj) nUM inXMqrx krn ivwc iehnF jMglF dI vwzI BUimkf hY. ies dy nfl nfl jMgl bhuq sfrI kfrbn nUM afpxy aMdr smytI rwKdy hn. jdoN jMgl nsLt kIqy jFdy hn qF bhuq sfrIaF grIn hfAUs gYsF  vfqfvrn ivwc CwzIaF jFdIaF hn. XUrp dI sMsQf PrYNzjL afP dI arQ anusfr sMn 2007 ivwc dunIaf ivwc sB qoN vwD grInhfAUs gYsF Cwzx vfly dysLF ivwcoN ieMzonysLIaf df nMbr qIjf sI. aijhf ies krky sI ikAuNik ieMzonysLIaf afpxIaF pItlYNzjL aqy qpq-KMzI jMglF df sPfieaf krky nvIN DrqI pflm Eiel dI KyqI aDIn ilaf irhf hY.

          dunIaf ivwc mIt dI vwD rhI Kpq vI jMglF dy ivnfsL df vwzf kfrn mMnI jf rhI hY. ipCly kuJ dhfikaF dOrfn brfjLIl dunIaF ivwc gF dy mIt dy Auqpfdn vfly iek muwK dysL vjoN AuBr ky sfhmxy afieaf hY. zfvirn anusfr sMn 2003 ivwc brfjLIl ny 12 lwK (1[2 imlIan) mItirk tn gF df mIt inrXfq kIqf jdoN ik sMn 1997 ivwc ieh mfqrf 2 lWK 32 hjLfr mItrk tn sI. mIt dy Auqpfdn ivwc hoey ies vfDy df 80 PIsdI ihwsf brfjLIl dy aYmfjLfn Kyqr ivwc pYdf kIqf igaf sI. Aus smyN aYmfjLfn dy Kyqr ivwc hr sfl 25 lwK (2[5 imlIan) hYktyar jF 9500 vrg mIl dy brfbr jMglF df sPfieaf ho irhf sI. jMglF dy ies qrHF dy Kfqmy ivwc jMgl kwt ky gFvF pflx leI cfrgfhF bxfAux aqy psLUaF dI Kurfk leI anfj pYdf krn leI DrqI nUM KyqIXog bxfAux dI aihm BUimkf sI. sYNtr Pfr ieMtrnYsLnl POrstrI irsrc dy zfierYktr jnrl dy  sLbdF ivwc “brfjLIl ivwc jMglF dy Kfqmy dI dr asmfn nUM Cuh rhI hY aqy gF dy mIt df inrXfq krn leI kIqf jFdf Auqpfdn ies leI ijLMmyvfr hY”.

          dunIaf ivwc vwD rhI mIt dI mMg jMglF df sPfieaf krn ivwc hI afpxf ihwsf nhIN pf rhI sgoN vfqfvrn ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF PYlfAux ivwc vI ies dI mhwqvpUrn BUimkf hY. XUnfeItz nysLnjL dI PUz aYNz aYgrIklcrl sMsQf vloN 2006 ivwc CfpI geI iek irport anusfr lfeIvstOk (psLUaF dy Auqpfdn df) sYktr vfqfvrn ivwc 18 PIsdI dy brfbr grInhfAUs gYsF PYlfAux leI ijLMmyvfr hY. iek hor irport anusfr ijMnIaF grInhfAUs gYsF 1 iklogRfm gF dy mIt dy Auqpfdn kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfeIaF jFdIaF hn, AunIaF grInhfAUs gYsF XUrp ivwc iek aOsq kfr 155 mIl cwlx qoN bfad PYlfAuNdI hY aqy ijMnI AUrjf (aYnrjI) 1 iklogRfm gF df mIt pYdf krn `qy lwgdI hY, AunI AUrjf nfl 100 vft dy iek blb nUM 20 idnF qwk jgdf rwiKaf jf skdf hY.

          vsqF nUM bxfAux jF pYdfvfr krn `qy lwgx vflf mfl hI DrqI dy vsIilaF dI Kpq aqy vfqfvrn dy nuksfn leI ijLMmyvfr nhIN sgoN bhuq sfrIaF vsqF dI vrqoN vI DrqI dy vsIilaF dI Kpq leI aqy vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux leI ijLMmyvfr hY. ies sMbMD ivwc kfrF dI Audfhrn leI jf skdI hY. zfvirn anusfr ipCly kuJ dhfikaF dOrfn dunIaf ivwc Kpq hox vflI kuwl rbV df awDf ihwsf, kuwl sLIsLy df cOQf ihwsf aqy kuwl stIl df 15 PIsdI ihwsf kfrF dy Auqpfdn leI vriqaf igaf hY. ies dy nfl nfl iekwlIaF pYsMjr kfrF hI hr sfl dunIaf ivwc vrqI jFdI kuwl AUrjf (aYnrjI) df 15 PIsdI ihwsf vrqdIaF hn. iewQy ieh gwl not krn vflI hY ik kfrF leI sVkF bxfAux aqy sVkF dI dyKBfl AuWpr Krc afAux vflI AUrjf ies 15 PIsdI ivwc jmHF nhIN kIqI geI.

          ieh gwl vI asIN sfry jfxdy hF ik qyl-pYtrOl afid nfl cwlx vflIaF gwzIaF dI vfqfvrn ivwc grInhfAUsF gYsF PYlfAux ivwc aihm BUimkf hY. zfvirn anusfr, ies smyN dunIaf ivwc AUrjf dI vrqoN kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc PYlx vflI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz df qkrIbn pMjvF ihwsf motr-kfrF dI vrqoN kfrn pYdf huMdf hY. iek kfr vloN sfl ivwc aOsqn ikMnI ku kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz CwzI jFdI hY? ieh dr hflqF dy vwKryivMaF kfrn vwK vwK dysLF ivwc vwKrI hY. amrIkf dI ienvfiermYNtl pRotYksLn eyjMsI anusfr amrIkf ivwc sfl ivwc iek kfr aOsqn 500 gYln qyl KFdI hY aqy gwzI ivwc bly pYtrol dI iek gYln vfqfvrn ivwc 8[8 iklogRfm jF 19[4 pONz kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz PYlfAuNdI hY aqy zIjLl dI iek gYln vfqfvrn ivwc 10[1 iklogRfm jF 22[2 pONz kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz PYlfAuNdI hY. ies smyN iekwly amrIkf ivwc kfrF dI igxqI 25 kRoV (250 imlIan) dy krIb dwsI jFdI hY. ieh kfrF sfl ivwc ikMnI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfAuNdIaF hoxgIaF Aus df ihsfb qusIN afp lf skdy ho.

          vsqF dy iesqymfl dOrfn vrqy jFdy vsIilaF aqy vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn dy sMbMD ivwc asIN mobfeIl jF sYWl PonF dy sMbMD ivwc kuJ qwQ ihMdusqfn bfry pysL krFgy. ipCly kuJ smyN ivwc ihMdusqfn ivwc mobfeIl PonF dI vrqoN df vwzI pwDr `qy psfr hoieaf hY. ivwkIpIzIaf ivwcy idwqy aMkiVaF anusfr mfrc 2011 qwk Bfrq ivwc mobfeIl Pon rwKx vfilaF (sbskrfeIbrjL) dI igxqI 81 kRoV 16 lwK (811[59 imlIan) sI aqy sMn 2013 qwk ies igxqI dy 1[159 arb (iblIan) qwk phuMc jfx df anumfn hY.  mobfeIl PonF dy iehnF sfry gfhkF nUM ibnF iksy rukfvt dy srivs muhweIaf krn leI srivs dyx vflIaF kMpnIaF nUM bhuq vwzI mfqrf ivwc ibjlI dI loV pYNdI hY jo ik vfqfvrn ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF PYlfAux df kfrn bxdI hY. meI 2011 nUM grIn pIs vloN pysL kIqI iek irport anusfr ies smyN ihMdusqfn dy tYlIkom sYktr nUM afpxy buinafdI ZFcy dy nYWtvrk (nYWtvrk ienPrfstrkcr) leI sflfnf ibjlI dIaF 14 arb (iblIan) XUintF dI loV hY aqy 2012 qwk ieh loV 26 arb (iblIan) XUintF qwk phuMc jfeygI. ies sYktr dy buinafdI ZFcy ivwc sLfml 4 lwK mobfeIl tfvrF df iek ihwsf aijhIaF QFvF `qy siQwq hY ijwQy AuhnF dy girwz qoN imlx vflI ibjlI nfl kunYksLn nhIN hn, ies krky Auh afpxIaF ibjlI loVF leI zIjLl jnrytrF `qy inrBr hn. iehnF tfvrF ivwc iek ihwsf tfvr Auh hn ijnHF dy girwz qoN imlx vflI ibjlI nfl kunYksLn qF hn pr AuhnF nMU girwz qoN imlx vflI ibjlI hmysLF pRfpq nhIN huMdI. nqIjy vjoN AuhnF nUM vI afpxIaF ibjlI loVF dy kuJ ihwsy leI zIjLl jnrytrF `qy inrBr hoxf pYNdf hY. grInpIs dI irport muqfbk ihMdusqfn df tYlIkOm sYktr afpxIaF ibjlI loVF dI pUrqI leI sflfnf 3 arb (iblIan) lItr zIjLl dI vrqoN krdf hY.  astRylIaf srkfr vloN idwqI geI jfxkfrI anusfr jdoN zIjLl df 1 lItr bldf hY qF ieh vfqfvrn ivwc 2[7 iklogRfm kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz Cwzdf hY. ies qoN asIN aMdfjLf lf skdy hF ik isrP mobfeIl PonF dI vrqoN nfl hI ihMdusqfn ivwc iek sfl ivwc ikMnI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc CwzI jFdI hY.

          kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn dy sMbMD ivwc not krn vflI aglI gwl ieh hY ik kMijLAUmr vsqF dy Auqpfdn, ivkrI aqy Kpq dOrfn bhuq sfrf kUVf krkt pYdf huMdf hY. keI ivdvfnF anusfr kUVf-krkt aqy qbfhI kMijLAUmr susfietI dy jLrUrI ihwsy hn. sosLilst rijstr dI 2007 ivwc CpI pusqk lVI ivwc iek lyK ivwc hYdr rOjrjL ilKdf hY hY ik ipCly 30 sflF dOrfn amrIkf ivwc kUVy df Auqpfdn dwugxf ho igaf hY aqy amrIkf ivwc 80 PIsdI vsqF isrP iek vfr hI vrqIaF jFdIaF hn. ies nukqy nUM hor spsLt krn leI inAU XOrk tfiemjL ivwc 22 meI 2011 nUM Cpy iek afrtIkl prl afP plfsitk dy afDfr `qy asIN plfsitk dIaF vsqF bfry QoVHy ivsQfr nfl gwl krFgy. 5-6 dhfikaF dOrfn plfsitk dI vrqoN ivwc aQfh vfDf hoieaf hY. inAUXOrk tfiemjL ivwc 20 meI 2011 nUM Cpy iek afrtIkl anusfr, 1950ivaF ivwc dunIaf ivwc plfsitk df sflfnf Auqpfdn 15 lwK (1[5 imlIan) tn huMdf sI aqy hux ieh 25 kRoV (250 imlIan) tn qwk phuMc igaf hY. plfsitk qoN iqafr kIqIaF vsqF ivwcoN awDIaF isrP iek vfrI hI vrqIaF  jFdIaF hn ijvyN ik sLYNpU dIaF boqlF, iek vfr vrq ky suwt dyx vfly ryjLr blyz, plfsitk dy cmcy aqy kFty, keI qrHF dy KfixaF vflIaF zwbIaF afid. AuWqrI amrIkf aqy pwCmI XUrp ivwc iek ivakqI sfl ivwc 100 iklogRfm dy brfbr plfsitk vrqdf hY aqy 2015 qwk ies dr dy 140 iklogRfm qwk phuMc jfx dy afsfr hn . qyjLI nfl ivkfs kr rhy eysLIan mulkF ivwc ies smyN ieh dr 20 iklogRfm sflfnf hY pr anumfn hY ik 2015  qwk iehnF mulkF ivwc ieh dr 36 iklogRfm sflfnf ho jfeygI.

          plfsitk dIaF bhuqIaF vsqF vrqoN bfad kUVy dy ZyrF `qy clIaf jFdIaF hn. amrIkf dI ienvfiermYNtl pRotYksLn eyjMsI anusfr sMn 2009 ivwc amrIkf ivwc isrP 7 PIsdI plfsitk hI rIsfeIkl kIqI geI sI. prl afP plfsitk muqfbk jy  iekwly plfsitk bYgF dI siQqI dyKI jfvy qF hflfq ies qoN vI BYVy njLr afAuNdy hn. dunIaf ivwc isrP 1 PIsdI plfsitk bYg rIsfeIkl kIqy jFdy hn aqy amrIkf ivwc ieh dr 2 PIsdI hY. hr sfl amrIkf dy lok 100 arb (iblIan) plfsitk bYg kUVy dy Zyr AuWqy suwtdy hn. ikAuNik Auh  pYtrOl jF nYcurl gYs qoN bxfey jFdy hn ies leI 100 arb plfstik bYg kUVy `qy suwtx df arQ hY qyl dIaF 1 kRoV 20 lwK bYrlF kUVy dy Zyr `qy suwtxIaF. 

          keI mfhrF df anumfn hY ik kUVf bxI plfsitk df kfPI vwzf ihwsf dirafvF, nfilaF afid ivwc dI ruV ky jF lokF vloN bIcF `qy suwty jfx bfad jF smuMdrI jhfjLF ivwcoN suwty jfx bfad smuMdrF qwk phuMc jFdf hY.  lMzn siQq sMsQf plfsitk EsLIanjL anusfr hr sfl 47 lwK (4[7 imlIan) tn plfsitk smuMdrF qwk phuMc jFdI hY.  XUnfeItz nysLnjL ienvfiermYNt pRogrfm anusfr smuMdr dy hr iek vrg mIl ivwc qkrIbn qkrIbn 46,000 plfsitk dy tuwkVy qrdy imldy hn. amrIkf dy sUby kYlyPornIaf dy smuMdrI qwt qoN 1000 mIl dUr AuWqrI sLFq mhFsfgr dI GuMmxGyrI (nOrdrn pYsyiPk jfier) ivwc amrIkf dy tYkss sUby dy KyqrPl qoN duwgxy KyqrPl dy Gyry ivwc plfsitk iekwTf hoieaf imldf hY. bI bI sI dy sfeIt AuWpr CpI iek irport anusfr ies hI qrHF df iek Kyqr aMDmhFsfgr (nOrQ atlFitk jfier) ivwc vI hY ijwQy bhuq sfrf plfsitk iekwTf hoieaf imldf hY. mfhrF vloN ies Kyqr nUM nOrQ atlFitk gfrbyj pYc df nF idwqf igaf hY. ies Kyqr df KyqrPl sYNkVy iklomItrF ivwc hY. ivigafnIaF anusfr ies Kyqr ivwc iek vrg iklomItr mgr plfsitk dy tukiVaF dI mfqrf 2 lwK tuwkiVaF qoN vwD hY ijhnF ivwc plfstik bYgF vrgIaF kMijLAUmr vsqF dy tuwkVy vI sLfml hn.  iewQy ieh gwl vI Xfd rwKx vflI hY ik plfsitk eynI CyqI gldf nhIN aqy ies nUM glx leI keI dhfky lwg jFdy hn. ies df Bfv ieh hoieaf ijhVf plfsitk iek vfr DrqI dy kUVy `qy Zyr AuWqy aqy smuMdr ivwc phuMc igaf hY Auh iek lMmf smF AuWQy rhygf.

 

kMijLAumirjLm dy buinafdI kfrn

 

          dunIaf Br ivwc vwD rhy ies kMijLAUmirjLm dy kI kfrn hn? kI iensfn dy aMdr hI kuJ aijhI cIjL hY ijs kfrn Auh vwD qoN vwD vsqF dI pRfpqI leI dOiVaf-Bwijaf iPrdf  hY jF sfzy smfj dI bxqr aijhI hY jo Aus ivwc vwD qoN vwD cIjLF pfAux dIaF KfihsLF/cfhqF pYdf krdI hY. QoVHf ijhf bdlvyN rUp ivwc ieh svfl ies qrHF vI puwiCaf jf skdf hY ik kI sfzy smfj ivwc vsqF df Auqpfdn mnuwK dIaF loVF nUM pUrf krn leI kIqf jFdf hY jF vsqF dy Auqpfdn df aml mnuwK ivwc KfihsLF/cfhqF pYdf krn ivwc BUimkf inBfAuNdf hY qF ik vsqF dy Auqpfdk munfPf kmfAux df aml lgfqfr jfrI rwK skx. jy qF asIN afpxf iDafn isrP mnuwK vloN vsqF Kpq krn dy kfrj AuWqy hI kyNdirq krFgy qF ho skdf hY ik asIN ies nqIjy `qy phuMcIey ik mnuwK dy aMdr hI kuwJ hY ijs kfrn Auh vwD qoN vwD vsqF dI pRfpqI leI dOiVaf-Bwijaf iPrdf hY. pr jy asIN afpxf iDafn vsqF dy Auqpfdn aqy Kpq dy smuwcy aml (vsqF dy Auqpfdn, vsqF dI mfrikitMg, vsqF dI ivkrI aqy Kpq) `qy kyNdirq krFgy qF asIN dyK skFgy ik iks qrHF vsqF df Auqpfdn vsqF dI mMg pYdf krn ivwc vwzI BUimkf inBfAuNdf hY.

          sB qoN pihlF sfzy leI ieh smJxf jLrUrI hY ik kMijLAUmirjLm dIaF jVHF mOjUdf afriQk pRbMD dy loV qoN vwD Auqpfdn (EvrpRozksLn) dy sMkt nfl bwJIaF hoeIaF hn. ircrz rOibnjL afpxI ikqfb globl pRfblmjL aYNz dI klcr afP kYpItljLm ivwc ilKdf hY ik srmfeydfrI dy ivkfs dy iek pVfa AuWqy aijhI siQqI pYdf ho geI sI ik qknOlOjI dy ivkfs kfrn vsqF dy Auqpfdn ivwc aQfh vfDf hoieaf sI. pr ies vDy hoey Auqpfdn nUM KRIdx vfly lok nhIN sn ijs kfrn smfj ivwc loV qoN vwD Auqpfdn df sMkt pYdf ho igaf. AuqpfdkF vloN ies sMkt ivwcoN inklx leI kIqIaF koisLsLF jF vrqy gey ZMgF nfl ajoky kMijLAUmirjLm df bIj bIijaf igaf. ajoky Auqpfdn pRbMD bfry itwpxI krdf hoieaf rOibnjL ilKdf hY:

 

spsLt rUp ivwc vsqF dI sfzy vloN kIqI jFdI Kpq sfzy siBafcfr `qy inrBr krdI hY. ajokI srmfeydfrI isrP vsqF aqy syvfvF dy Auqpfdn aqy ivkrI dy isr `qy cldI hY aqy asIN ijMnIaF ijLafdf vsqF pYdf krdy hF, ijMnIaF ijLafdf vsqF KRIddy hF, AunI ijLafdf qrwkI aqy KusLhflI huMdI hY. afriQk vfDy df sB qoN mhwqvpUrn mfp grOs nYsLnl pRozkt (jI aYWn pI) hY, iksy vI smfj vloN iek sfl ivwc pYdf kIqIaF geIaF vsqF aqy syvfvF df kuwl joV. ieh kMijLAUmr smfj dI kfmXfbI df mfp hY[[[

 

pRcUn ivkrI df aiDan krn vflf amrIkf df iek hor ivdvfn ivktr lIbo vI kMijLAUmrijLm aqy sfzy ajoky afriQk pRbMD ivwc zUMGf irsLqf smJdf hY. vrlzvfc dI 2004 dI irport ivwc Aus vloN khI gwl df hyTlf hvflf idwqf igaf hY:

 

sfzI bhuq ijLafdf kfrgr afriQkqf[[[ mMg krdI hY ik asIN vsqF dI Kpq nUM afpxI jIvn jfc bxfeIey, ik asIN vsqF dI KRId aqy vrqoN nUM  mrXfdf bxfeIey, ik asIN afpxI rUhfnI sMqusLtI, afpxI hAuN dI sMqusLtI vsqF dI Kpq ivwcoN lwBIey[[[ sfnUM vsqF dI Kpq, vsqF dI qbfhI, vsqF dI GsfeI, vsqF dI bdlI aqy vsqF dI (kUVy `qy) sutfeI dI lgfqfr qyjL huMdI rPqfr nfl loV hY.

 

sMsfr pRiswD arQsLfsqrI jOhn kYinQ gYlbrYQ afpxy msLhUr lyK “df izpYNzYNs iePYkt” ivwc vsqF dIaF jLrUrqF/cfhqF aqy vsqF dy Auqpfdn dy sMbMD bfry ilKdf hoieaf dlIl idMdf hY ik vsqF dIaF jLrUrqF/cfhqF vsqF dy Auqpfdn `qy inrBr krdIaF hn. vsqF dy Auqpfdk vsqF dIaF jLrUrqF/cfhqF pYdf krn leI iek mhwqvpUrn BUimkf inBfAuNdy hn. ajoky Auqpfdn pRbMD ivwc vsqF dI cfhq pYdf krn leI kIqy jFdy Krcy vsqF dy Auqpfdn `qy afAux vfly KricaF ijMny hI mhwqvpUrn hn aqy ieh kfPI ijLafdf huMdy hn. ies leI KpqkfrI vsqF dI mMg nUM iehnF KricaF dy sMdrB ivwc dyKxf cfhIdf hY. gYlbrYQ anusfr ies qrHF krn df arQ hY ieh mMnxf hY ik,

 

[[[ jLrUrqF/cfhqF Auqpfdn `qy inrBr hn. [[[ vsqF dy Auqpfdn aqy AuhnF leI cfhqF pYdf krn dy dovyN kfrj Auqpfdk (pRoizAUsr) dy ijLMmy hn. [[[ Auqpfdn (pRozksLn) rIs krn dy afm vrqfry rfhIN hI nhIN, sgoN iesLiqhfrbfjLI aqy Aus nfl sMbMDq srgrmIaF rfhIN srgrm rUp ivwc Auh jLrUrqF/cfhqF pYdf krdf hY ijs nUM ieh sMqusLt krnf cfhuMdf hY.

 

Auh awgy ilKdf hY ik:

 

vsqF df Auqpfdn AuhnF jLrUrqF/cfhqF dI pUrqI krdf hY ijhVIaF jLrUrqF/cfhqF iehnF vsqF dI Kpq (knspsLn) pYdf krdI hY jF ijhnF df vsqF df Auqpfdk (pRoizAUsr) joV lfAuNdf hY. Auqpfdn hor jLrUrqF/cfhqF pYdf krdf hY aqy hor Auqpfdn leI loV pYdf krdf hY.

 

          ies qrHF asIN dyK skdy hF ik ajoky afriQk pRbMD ivwc vsqF dIaF jLrUrqF/cfhqF jF kMijLAUmirjLm dI vwzI BUimkf hY. afriQkqF dy vfDy leI kMijLAUmirjLm dy vfDy dI loV hY. ies leI vsqF dy AuqpfdkF vloN kMijLAUmirjLm nUM PYlfAux leI vwzI pwDr AuWqy Xqn kIqy jFdy hn. srkfrF vloN ies iksm dIaF nIqIaF  bxfeIaF jFdIaF hn jo kMijLAUmirjLm nUM AuqsLfihq krn. lyK dy agly ihwsy ivwc AuqpfdkF aqy srkfrF vloN kMijLAUmirjLm dy psfr leI kIqy jFdy kuJ XqnF bfry gwl krFgy.

          sB qoN pihlF vsqF dI mMg pYdf krn ivwc iesLiqhfrbfjLI aqy mfrkIitMg vwzI BUimkf inBfAuNdI hY. iesLiqhfrbfjLI ivwc vsq dy gux jF Aus dI AupXogqf dwsx dI QF ies qrHF dIaF gwlF AuWqy jLor idwqf jFdf hY ik vsqF dI pRfpqI quhfzI ikhVI Bfvfqmfk loV pUrI krygI jF vsqF dI pRfpqI quhfzy smfjk ruqby ivwc iks qrF vfDf krygI jF vsqF dI pRfpqI quhfnUM iks qrHF jvfn bxfeygI/rwKygI afid. vsqF dy Auqpfdn smyN Auqpfdn dy KricaF dy nfl nfl vsqF nUM vycx leI iesLiqhfrbfjLI krn leI kfrporysLnF vwloN vwzy bwjt rwKy jFdy hn. vrlzvfc dI 2010 ivwc CpI irport ivwc dwisaf igaf hY ik sMn 2008 ivwc sMsfr pwDr `qy iesLiqhfrbfjLI df kuwl bwjt 6 Krb 43 arb (643 iblIan) zflr sI. eynI rkm Krc ky iek afm afdmI nUM vwD qoN vwD vsqF KRIdx leI kfiel krn leI pUrf jLor lfieaf jFdf hY. rojLfnf ijLMdgI ivwc iek afm ivakqI dI ingHF ijs pfsy vI jFdI hY, Aus pfsy hI Aus df iesLiqhrF nfl sfhmxf huMdf hY. ibwlborzF, kMDF AuWqy vfhy icwqrF, bwsF-gwzIaF, Kfxy dy zwibaF, pulF, tol-bUQF, Kyz dy mYdfnF, aMqrrfsLtrI Kyz mukfbilaF dy sQfnF, iKzfrIaF dIaF vrdIaF, vwK vwK mIzIey (tYlIivjLn, ryzIE, aKbfrF, mYgjLInF, iPlmF, ieMtrnYWt) jfnIik hr iek  QF AuWqy iesLiqhfr dy ky lokF AuWqy lgfqfr iesLiqhfrF df mINh vrHfieaf jFdf hY. nqIjy vjoN hr rojL iek ivakqI hjLfrF nhIN qF sYNkVy iesLiqhfr jLrUr dyKdf hY. amrIkf bfry kIqy iek srvyKx anusfr, amrIkf dy sLihr ivwc rihMdy iek ivakqI df hr rojL 5000 qwk iesLiqhfrF nfl vfh pYNdf hY. iehnF iesLiqhfrF ivwc lokF nUM vfr vfr hor vsqF KRIdx df sunyhf idwqf huMdf hY. AuhnF nUM dwisaf jFdf hY ik jy Auh KusL hn, qF Auh KusLI df jsLn mnfAux leI KRIdx aqy jy Auh Audfs hn qF AudfsI ivwcoN bfhr inklx leI KRIdx. 

          iensfn nUM iek knijLAUmr ivwc qbdIl krn leI Aus nUM bcpn qoN hI iesLiqhfrbfjLI df insLfnf bxfieaf jFdf hY. hfrvrz mYzIkl skUl nfl sMbMDq sUjLn iln anusfr amrIkf ivwc ies smyN kMpnIaF bwicaF ivwc vsqF dI mfrkIt pYdf krn leI 17 arb (iblIan) zflr Krc rhIaF hn. sMn 1983 ivwc ieh rkm 10 kRoV (100 imlIan) zflr dy nyVy sI. Bfv ik ipCly 3 dhfikaF dOrfn kMpnIaF vloN bwicaF ivwc vsqF dI mfrIkt bxfAux leI KrcI jFdI rkm ivwc170 guxF vfDf hoieaf hY. sUjLn iln df dfavf ik bysLwk bwicaF ivwc vsqF dI mfrkIt bxfAux df ieh ruJfx amrIkf qoN sLurU hoieaf hY pr bhukOmI kMpnIaF vloN ies ruJfn nUM dunIaF dy dUjy dysLF, ihMdusqfn aqy cIn smyq, ivwc kfPI bVfvf idwqf jf irhf hY. iekwlIaF Kfx vflIaF vsqF bxfAux vflIaF kMpnIaF hI bwicaF ivwc afpxIaF vsqF dI mfrkIt bxfAux leI dunIaf Br ivwc 1[9 arb (iblIan) zflr Krc rhIaF hn. inAUXOrk tfiemjL ivwc 15 jnvrI 2007 nUM CpI iek irport anusfr bwicaF qwk afpxy iesLiqhfr phuMcfAux leI kMpnIaF hr Aus QF nUM vrqx dI koisLsL krdIaF hn ijwQy bwcy mOjUd hox. Audfhrn leI amrIkf ivwc keI QFvF `qy bwicaF nUM skUl iljfx vflIaF bwsF ivwc bwicaF leI ryzIE-iesLiqhfr vjfey jFdy hn. vflt izjLnI kMpnI ny skUl jfx dI Aumr qoN Coty bwicaF leI bxfeI afpxI zI vI zI “iltl afienstfeInjL” dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI krn leI bwicaF dy zfktrF nUM muafienf krn vfly aijhy cfrt idwqy sn ijhnF AuWpr ies zI vI zI dy iesLiqhfr sn. iesLiqhfrbfjLI BrpUr ies qrHF dy mfhOl df hI nqIjf hY ik skUl jfx qoN Gwt Aumr dy bhuqy bwicaF ny BfvyN ajy aMgryjLI df awKr aYWm iswiKaf hovy jF nf, Auh mkzOnlz dI aYWm jLrUr pCfx lYNdy hn. sUjLn iln df kihxf hY ik bwicaF ivwc kIqI jFdI ies qrHF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI AuhnF nUM CotI Aumr ivwc hI ieh isKf idMdI hY ik vsqF KRIdx nfl lok KusLI hfsl kr skdy hn.

          lokF nUM vsqF KRIdx leI mjLbUr krn leI Auqpfdk vsqF nUM iqafr hI ies qrHF krdy hn ik iewk imwQy smyN bfad Auh vsqF kMm krn Xog nhIN rihMdIaF jF iek imwQy smyN bfad lokF nUM ies qrHF lwgx lwg pYNdf hY ik Auh vsqF purfxIaF (afAUt afP zyt) ho geIaF hn bysLwk Auh kMm krdIaF vI hox. AuqpfdkF vloN vrqI jFdI ies jugq nUM mfhrF ny “plYnz afbsolysYNs” df nF idwqf hY. “plYnz afbsolysYNs” iek aijhI vpfrk jugq hY ijs aDIn iksy vsq nUM iqafr krn smyN Aus vsq dy apRwcilq ho jfx/krn (PYsLn ivwc nf rihx jF vrqoXog nf rihx) dI imafd vsq dy izjLfien ivwc hI imwQ leI jFdI hY, qF ik Aus imwQy smyN qoN bfad lokF ivwc Aus vsq nUM dubfrf KRIdx dI loV bxI rhy.

          iksy vsq nUM apRwclq (afbsolIt) krn leI Auqpfdk keI qrHF dy ZMg vrqdy hn ijhnF ivwc kuJ ies pRkfr hn: GsfeI kfrn jdoN vsq dI murMmq dI loV pYNdI hY qF murMmq df Krcf nvIN vsq nUM KRIdx dy Krcy nfloN ijLafdf huMdf hY, vsq dy bfjLfr ivwc afAux qoN bfad iek imwQy smyN bfad Aus vsq dI murMmq leI spyar pfrts iqafr krny bMd kr idwqy jFdy hn, bfjLfr ivwc Aus vsq dI nvIN lfeIn ilaf ky suwt idwqI jFdI hY ijhVI purfxI vsq dy nfl kMm nhIN krdI. ies sMbMD ivwc asIN afpxy qjrby qoN keI AudfhrnF dyK skdy hF. jdoN sMgIq irkfrz krn leI aYWl pI irkfrzF aqy afizE kYstF dI QF kMpYkt izsk (sI zI) afeI qF ies nfl aYl pI aqy afzIE kYst vjfAux vflIaF cMgIaF BlIaF cldIaF msLInF kUVf-kbfVf bx ky rih geIaF. vI aYWc aYWs typF dI QF zI vI zI afAux nfl ieh hI hfl vI sI afr msLInF df hoieaf. hr sfl nvyN sfPtvyar pRogrfm iqafr kIqy jFdy hn ijhVy purfxy pRogrfmF nfl iqafr kIqIaF PfeIlF qF pVH skdy hn pr purfxy pRogrfm nvyN pRogrfmF nfl iqafr kIqIaF PfeIlF nhIN pVH skdy. iswty vjoN purfxy pRogrfm vrq rhy lokF nUM nvyN pRogrfm lYx leI mjLbUr hoxf pYNdf hY, bysLwk purfxy pRogrfm AuhnF dI loV pUrqI leI kfPI hox. ies sMbMD ivwc qusIN hor vI keI ielYktROink vsqF dIaF AudfhrnF dyK skdy ho.

          vsq BfvyN vrqoXog hovy vI pr Aus nUM lokF dI soc ivwc axvrqx Xog bxfAux leI Auqpfdk smyN smyN nvyN PYsLn clfAuNdy rihMdy hn aqy vsqF dy nvyN stfeIl/mfzl bfjLfr ivwc ilafAuNdy rihMdy hn. hr sfl jF CyaF mhIinaF bfad kwpiVaF dy bdldy PYsLn ies ruJfx dI spsLt Audfhrn hn. ipCly sfl KRIdy kwpVy bysLwk pUrI qrHF TIk Tfk hox pr nvyN PYsLn dy afAux kfrn lokF dy mnF ivc ivcfr pYdf ho jFdy hn ik Auh hux pihnxXog nhIN rhy jF purfxy ho gey hn aqy Auh nvyN kwpVy KRIdx bfry socdy hn. nqIjy vjoN ipCly sflF dy pUrI qrHF pihnxXog kwpVy almfrIaF/drfjF ivwc pey suwty jfx dI AuzIk krn lwgdy hn. ies vrqfry nfl lokF nUM koeI Pfiedf hovy jF nf pr kwpiVaF dy AuqpfdkF vloN munfPf kmfAux dy rfh KulHy rihMdy hn aqy ies gwl df AuhnF nUM pUrf pUrf igafn hY. ies leI vrqoXog kwpiVaF nUM apRcwlq krn df kfrj AuhnF dI kwpVy vycx dI vpfrk jugqF df iek ainKVvF ihwsf hY. ies gwl df sbUq amrIkf ivclI alfeIz storjL kfrporysLn dy cyarmyn bI arl pkt dy ies ibafn qoN imldf hY ijhVf Aus ny 1950 ivwc PYsLn ieMzstrI dy lIzrF sfhmxy idwqf sI. Aus ny ikhf sI, “muZlI AupXogqf kwpiVaF dI KusLhfl snaq dI buinafd nhIN ho skdI. sfzy leI (kwpiVaF dy) apRcwlx (afbsolyNs) ivwc qyjLI ilafAuxf jLrUrI hY.”

          kfrF dIaF kMpnIaF vloN hr sfl bfjLfr ivwc nvyN mfzl ilafAuxf vI ies ruJfx dI hI iek hor Audfhrn hY. bhuqI vfr kfrF dy nvyN mfzlF ivwc qknIkI qOr `qy koeI eyzf vwzf suDfr nhIN hoieaf huMdf bws AuhnF dI sLkl vgYrf `c QoVHI bhuqI qbdIlI krky hI nvyN sfl dy mfzl nUM ipCly sfl dy mfzl nfloN vwKrf bxfieaf igaf huMdf hY. afm qOr `qy iek nvIN kfr dI Aumr 10 ku sfl huMdI hY. jy kfr KRIdx vflf iek kfr lY ky eyny sfl nvIN kfr nf KRIdy qF nvINaF kfrF dI mMg ivwc kmI af skdI hY jo ik kfr AuqpfdkF dy munfPy `qy swt mfr skdI hY. ies leI hr sfl kfrF dy nvyN mfzl/stfeIl bfjLfr ivwc ilaf ky lokF ivwc nvINaF kfrF KRIdx dI cfhq pYdf krnf jLrUrI hY. jnrl motrjL dy izjLfien cIP hfrly arl vloN 1955 ivwc khy awgy idwqy sLbd ies gwl dI hfmI Brdy hn. “hr sfl lwKF hI kfr KRIdx vfilaF ivwc ipCly sfl df mfzl bdl ky nvyN sfl df mfzl KRIdx dI cfhq pYdf krnf kfr snaq leI bhuq jLrUrI hY.”

          keI vsqF ies qrHF dIaF hMudIaF hn ijhnF dy stfeIl jF izjLfien ivwc koeI vwzI qbdIlI nhIN kIqI jf skdI aqy ibnF iksy aOiKafeI dy vfr vfr vrqIaF jf skdIaF hn. ies qrHF dIaF vsqF nUM lokF dI soc ivc purfxIaF bxf ky AuhnF nUM vfr vfr KRIdx dI mMg pYdf krn leI keI vfrI AuqpfdkF vwloN bhuq idlcsp qrIky vrqy jFdy hn. ies bfry qfsL dy pwiqaF dI khfxI pysL hY. 1960ivaF ivwc amrIkf ivwc qfsL bxfAux vfilaF dI aYsosIeysLn ny lokF nUM vfr vfr nvIN qfsL KRIdx leI pRyirq krn leI iesLiqhfrbfjLI krn df kMm jy[ vfltr QFpsn nF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI krn vflI eyjMsI nUM sONipaf. ies eyjMsI ny ies kMm leI ijhVI iesLiqhfrbfjLI iqafr kIqI Aus df sunyhf kuJ ies pRkfr sI.  jy quhfzy Gr koeI prfhuxf afAuNdf hY qF qusIN Aus leI guslKfny ivwc mYly aqy axDoqy hoey qOlIey nhIN rwKdy sgoN Doqy hoey qOlIey rwKdy ho. iPr jdoN koeI dosq imwqr quhfzy kol qfsL Kyzx afAuNdy hn qF qusIN AuhnF nfl purfxI aqy mYlI hoeI qfsL nfl ikAuN Kyzdy ho? AuhnF nfl qfsL Kyzx leI quhfnUM hr vfrI nvIN qfsL vrqxI cfhIdI hY. ies qrHF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI nfl AuhnF ny lokF ivwc iek-do jF kuJ vfrI vrqI geI qfsL nUM nkfrf krky nvIN qfsL vrqx df afdq pfAux dI koisLsL kIqI qF ik qfsL dy pwiqaF dI mMg bxI rhy.

            keI vfrI Auqpfdk vsqF dy pYktF aqy BFizaF df izjLfien ies qrHF bxfAuNdy hn ik Aus nfl vsq dI Kpq vwD hovy. ies bfry sLYNpU bxfAux vflI kMpnI jOhnsn aYNz jOhnsn nfl sMbMDq iek idlcsp khfxI pysL hY. AuhnF nUM ies gwl df igafn sI ik jy bybI sLYNpU iek aijhI boql ivwc pfieaf hovy ijs nUM Guwtx nfl boql `qy lwgy zwt ivclI morI rfhIN loV ijMnf hI sLYNpU inkly qF ies nfl sLYNpU dI vrqoN bVI sMjm nfl hovygI.  AuhnF dy iek izjLfienr ny boql AuWpr pycF vflf Zwkx lf idwqf ijs nUM KolH ky hI sLYNpU kwiZaf jf skdf sI. ies Zwkx vflI boql ivwcoN sLYNpU bfhr kwZx smyN bhuqI vfrI boql dy izwg pYx jF boql dy iqlk jfx kfrn loV qoN ikqy ijLafdf sLYNpU bfhr zulH jFdf sI. kMpnI dy iek vwzy aiDkfrI anusfr isrP Zwkx dI ies qbdIlI krky hI Auh keI arbF zflrF df vfDU sLYNpU vycx ivwc kfmXfb ho gey sn. ies leI pycF vfly Zwkx dI kfZ kwZx vfly ivakqI nUM AuhnF dI kMpnI df sB qoN vwzf hIro mMinaf jFdf sI.

          bysLwk vsqF nUM jfxbuwJ ky apRcwilq krn (plYnz afbsolysYNs) dy smrQkF df dfavf hY ik ieh vrqfrf vsqF aqy syvfvF ivwc lgfqfr suDfr ilafAux leI bhuq jLrUrI hY, pr ies dy aflockF df kihxf hY ik ieh vrqfrf DrqI dy bhuq ijLafdf vsIilaF nUM kUVy krkt ivwc qbdIl krn df kfrn bxdf hY. ies nfl DrqI dy ikMny ku vsIly Krfb huMdy hn ieh smJx leI asIN XUrp dI sMsQf PrYNzjL afP arQ ivwc sYWl jF mobfeIl PonF bfry Cpy aMkVy dyK skdy hF. iek aMdfjLy anusfr iek aOsq afdmI hr sfl jF zyZ sfl bfad afpxf sYWl jF mobfeIl Pon bdl lYNdf hY. ies dy nqIjy vjoN sMn 1983 (jdoN pihlf sYWl Pon mfrkIt ivwc afieaf sI) qoN lY ky 2005 qwk qkrIbn 50 kRoV dy lgBg sYWl jF mobfeIl Pon apRcilq (afbsolIt) ho gey sn. apRcliq ho gey iehnF sYWl PonF df Bfr 56,000 tn dy nyVy sI. ies smwgrI ivwc ivwc 7900 tn qFbf, 178 tn cFdI, 17 tn sonf, 74 tn pYlfzIam aqy 180 iklogRfm plftInm sLfml sI. iewQy ieh gwl vI not krn vflI hY ik sYWl PonF dI ies smwgrI ivwc 1 PIsdI qoN vI Gwt smwgrI rIsfeIkl kIqI jFdI hY. ies df Bfv ieh hoieaf ik do dhfikaF dy krIb smyN ivwc 50 kRoV sYWl PonF dy apRcilq hox nfl DrqI dy eyny ijLafdf vsIly kUVy dy Zyr ivwc qbdIl ho gey hn.

          vsqF dy AuqpfdkF qoN ibnF lokF ivwc Kpqvfd df psfr krn leI sMcfr mIzIaf vwzI BUimkf inBfAuNdf hY. ies df muwK kfrn ieh hY ik ajokf mIzIaf afpxI afmdn leI iesLiqhfrF `qy inrBr krdf hY. ies leI Aus df rol lokF nUM jfxkfrI dyxf nhIN sgoN iesLiqhfrbfjLI leI drsLk pYdf krnf bx igaf hY. mIzIaf ivwc idwqy jFdy iesLiqhfr hI nhIN sgoN Aus ivwc pysL kIqI jFdI smwgrI vI lokF ivwc Kpqvfd df psfr krn vflI huMdI hY. tYlIivXn aqy iPlmF ivwc pysL kIqI jFdI smwgrI dy sMbMD ivwc ieh ruJfx isKr `qy phuMc cuwkf hY. bhuqI vfr tYlIivXn aqy iPlmF ivwc idKfey jFdy pRogrfmF ivwc amIr lokF df KpqvfdI jIvn pysL kIqf jFdf ho ijhVf afm lokF ivwc Kpqvfd dI lflsf pYdf krdf hY. bhuq sfry aiDanF qoN ieh gwl sfbq hoeI hY ik mIzIey ivwc idwqI jFdI iesLiqhfrbfjLI aqy pRogrfm lokF ivwc vsqF/syvfvF dI lflsf pYdf krdy hn. iek aiDan anusfr lok ijMnf vwD tYlIivXn dyKdy hn, Aunf ijLafdf pYsf Auh vsqF KRIdx `qy lfAuNdy hn. hPqy ivwc iek GMtf vfDU tYlIivXn dyKx mgr lok sfl ivwc vsqF KRIdx `qy 208 zflr vfDU Krcdy hn.

          iehnF kuJ iek ZMgF qoN ibnF Auqpfdk hor lokF ivwc vsqF dI cfhq/mMg pYdf krn leI keI qrHF dy ZMg vrqdy hn. QF dI Gft krky AuhnF sfiraF bfry iewQy gwl krnI sMBv nhIN. hux asIN ieh dyKFgy ik Kpqvfd dy psfr leI srkfrF kI BUimkf inBfAuNdIaF hn.

          ijvyN pihlF dwisaf jf cuwkf hY ik ajoky afriQk pRbMD dI slfmqI leI kMijLAUmirjLm dI vwzI loV hY. ies leI ies nUM AuqsLfihq krn leI srkfrF Kfs idlcspI lYNdIaF hn. ies gwl df sB qoN vwzf sbUq ieh hY ik sqMbr 2001 ivwc inAUXfrk dy tivwn tfvrF AuWpr hoey hmly qoN CyqI bfad pwCmI dysLF dIaF srkfrF dy bhuq sfry nyqfvF ny lokF nUM GrF qoN bfhr inkl sLfipMg/KRIddfrI krn df sunyhf idwqf sI. 27 sqMbr 2001 nUM amrIkf dy rfsLtrpqI jfrj buwsL ny lokF nUM ikhf sI,  “mYN quhfzy koloN amrIkf dI afriQkqf ivwc lgfqfr sLmUlIaq aqy ivsLvfs cfhuMdf hF”. ieMglYNz dy pRDfn mMqrI tonI blyar ny lokF nUM slfh idwqI sI, “ies dysL dy lok puwCdy hn ik AuhnF nUM aijhy smyN kI krnf cfhIdf hY. ies df juafb hY ik AuhnF nUM afpxI ijLMdgI afm vFg jIxI cfhIdI hY: AuhnF nUM kMm krnf cfhIdf hY, ijAuxf cfhIdf hY, sPr krnf cfhIdf hY aqy KRIddfrI krnI cfhIdI hY[[[” kYnyzf dy pRDfn mMqrI krYican ny ikhf sI “afpxIaF XojnfvF kYNisl nf kro[[[ sfzy leI afpxI trYivl aqy tUirjLm ieMzstrI nUM ijLMdf rwKxf jLrUrI hY. ieh moVvIN lVfeI lVn df iek ZMg hY.” iPr AuhnF  iDafn idvfieaf ik ivafj dI drF bhuq Gwt hn. “ies leI ieh mfrgyj lY ky Gr aqy kfrF KRIdx df smF hY.” inAU Xork dy myar ruzolP iglfnI ny lokF nUM bynqI kIqI sI, “rYstorYNtF ivwc jfAu, KRIddfrI kro, hor kuJ kro aqy idKfAu ik qusIN zry nhIN ho.” imafmI-zyz kfAuNtI dy myar ny lokF nUM suJf idwqf sI ik “bfhr jfAu aqy afriQkqf ivwc  Xogdfn pfAu.[[[ ijvyN myrI GrvflI kihMdI hY ik ies smyN KRIddfrI vwzI dysLBgqI hY.” ieh hvfly drsfAuNdy hn ik ies vwzy sMkt smyN vwK vwK pwDr dIaF srkfrF dy pRqIinDF vloN lokF nUM KRIddfrI krn leI pRyiraf jf irhf sI ikAuNik AunHF nUM zr sI ik jy lok KRIddfrI nhIN krngy qF AuhnF dI afriQkqf mMdy ivwc clI jfvygI.

          srkfrF keI qrHF dIaF nIqIaF aqy kfnUMn bxf ky kMijLAUmirjLm nUM AuqsLfihq krdIaF hn. ijvyN jnqk pwDr `qy syvfvF/vsqF dyx df pRbMD krn dI QF pRfeIvyt adfiraF rfhIN syvfvF pRdfn krn df PYslf lYxf, kMijLAUmr vsqF `qy lwgx vfly tYks ivwc ktOqIaF krnf, kMijLAUmr vsqF KRIdx leI sbszIaF/rIbytF dyxf, Auqpfdn dOrfn pYdf hox vflI rihMd-KUMhd nUM smytx bfry nrm kfnUMn bxfAuxf afid. ies sMbMD ivwc kuJ ku AudfhrnF pysL hn.

          sMn 2007-08 dOrfn afey mMdvfVy kfrn kfrF dI ivkrI ivwc pey mMdy nUM AuqsLfihq krn leI dunIaF dy keI dysLF dIaF srkfrF ny afpxy afpxy stImUls pYkjF ivwc kfrF dI ivkrI vDfAux leI keI qrHF dy kdm cuwky sn. Audfhrn leI amrIkf ny pihlF nvINaF kfrF KRIdx vfilaF nUM Cot idwqI ik Auh kfr `qy lwgy syljL tYks nUM afpxy ienkm tYks ivwc ktOqI dy qOr AuWqy klym kr skdy hn. bfad ivwc srkfr ny purfxI kfr vyc ky nvIN kfr lYx vfly lokF leI bons dI skIm clfeI. ies skIm aDIn purfxI kfr vyc ky Gwt qyl Kfx vflI nvIN kfr lYx vflf ivakqI srkfr koloN ZfeI qoN pMj hjLfr zflr dy krIb pYsy lY ky nvIN kfr KRIdx leI vrq skdf sI. cIn aqy XUrp dy hor keI dysLF ny vI afpxy afpxy dysLF ivwc kfrF dI ivkrI vDfAux leI ies qrHF dy kdm cuwky sn. sMn 2008 ivwc cIn dI styt kfAuNsl ny pyNzU ielfikaF ivwc kfrF KRIdx vfilaF nUM 10-13 PIsdI dI sbszI dyx leI 73 kRoV zflr rfKvyN rwKy sn. ies dy nfl hI srkfr ny CotIaF kfrF KRIdx vfilaF nUM awDy KRId tYks dI Cot idwqI sI. jrmnI ny sMn 2009 ivwc purfxI kfr vyc ky nvIN kfr lYx vfilaF nUM ZfeI hjLfr XUro df skrYipMg bons dyx df PYslf kIqf sI. srkfrF vloN apxfeIaF iehnF nIqIaF kfrn iehnF dysLF ivwc kfrF dI ivkrI kfPI vfDf hoieaf sI. 

          ipCly zyZ-do dhfikaF qoN srkfrF vloN afpxy KricaF ivwc ktOqIaF krn dy nF AuWqy ividaf aqy ishq vrgIaF syvfvF nUM srkfrI pwDr AuWqy pRdfn krn dI afpxI ijLMmyvfrI qoN ipwCy htx df vrqfrf sMsfr pwDr AuWqy vfpr irhf hY. keI dysLF dIaF srkfrF ny ieh nIqIaF afpxy afp apxfeIaF hn pr bhuq dysLF dIaF srkfrF AuWqy ieh nIqIaF aMqrrfsLtrI mudrf PMz (ieMtrnYsLnl mOntrI PMz) vrgIaF sMsQFvF ny TosIaF hn. iehnF nIqIaF kfrn ividak aqy ishq adfiraF AuWpr dbfa pfieaf jf irhf hY ik Auh afpxy KricaF leI pYsy inwjI Kyqr ivwcoN iekwqr krn. nqIjy vjoN ieh adfry pYsy iekwqr krn leI vwzIaF kfrporysLnF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI lYx leI mjLbUr ho rhy hn, aqy ies iesLiqhfrbfjLI rfhIN kMijLAUmirjLm dy psfr df mfiDam bx rhy hn. ies bfry ividak Kyqr ivwcoN kuJ AudfhrnF pysL hn. iek aiDan anusfr amrIkf dy do iqhfeI skUl sozf aqy Pfst PUz vycx vflIaF msLInF qoN hox vflI afmdn ivwcoN ihwsf lYNdy hn aqy iek iqhfeI skUlF nUM sozf vycx vflIaF kMpnIaF vwloN ivwqI ienfm idwqy jFdy hn jdoN AuhnF dy skUlF ivwc iek imwQI hwd qoN vwD sozy dI ivkrI hovy. ies hI qrHF amrIkf dy 8000 skUlF ivwc kfrporysLnF vloN spFsr kIqy KbrF dy pRogrfm idKfey jFdy hn, ijhnF ivwc kfrporysLnF vloN iqafr kIqIaF vsqF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI vI sLfml huMdI hY. iehnF pRogrfmF dI phuMc amrIkf dy 60 lwK ividafrQI qwk hY. sMn 2006 ivwc kYnyzf dy skUlF bfry kIqy iek aiDan anusfr 32 PIsdI skUlF ivwc iksy nf iksy qrHF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI mOjUd sI. ieh iesLiqhfrbfjLI krn vflIaF kMpnIaF ivwcoN muwK kMpnIaF sn kok aqy pYpsI ijhnF dIaF vsqF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI skUlF dy skorborzF, GVIaF, pIx vflIaF vsqF vycx vflIaF msLInF, bYnrF, skUl dy sfeInF aqy ijMm ivwc vrqx vflI smwgrI `qy mOjUd sI. iehnF skUlF nUM kfrporysLnF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI df shfrf qF lYxf ipaf ikAuNik AuhnF nUM srkfrF vloN skUl clfAux dy pUry Krcy nhIN imldy sn. ies qrHF skUl dy bwjtF ivwc ktOqI krn dIaF srkfrI nIqIaF ividafrQIaF ivwc kMijLAUmr vsqF dI iesLiqhfrbfjLI df kfrn bxIaF.

 

iswtf:

          asIN dyiKaf hY ik awj dunIaf Br ivwc kMijLAUmirjLm df bolbflf hY. ijhVy iKwqy jF lok pUrI qrHF ies dI igRPq ivwc nhIN afey, AuhnF nUM ieh bVI qyjLI nfl afpxI lpyt ivwc lY irhf hY. kMijLAUmirjLm df ieh PYlfa iksy kudrqI vrqfry dy kfrn hoNd ivwc nhIN afieaf sgoN ieh ajoky srmfeydfrI pRbMD dI loV ivwcoN Aupijaf hY aqy ies df PYlfa AuqpfdkF aqy srkfrF vwloN keI dhfikaF qoN iek muihMm dy qOr qy lgfqfr kIqIaF jf rhIaF vwK vwK qrHF dIaF koisLsLF df nqIjf hY. dunIaF dy amIr dysL aqy amIr lok kMijLAUmirjLm dy vwzy ihwsydfr hn. bysLwk kMijLAUmirjLm dy smrQkF vloN ies nUM qrwkI aqy KusLhflI df pRqIk mMn ky dunIaf dy vwD qoN vwD lokF nUM ies ivwc sLfml krn dy Xqn kIqy jf rhy hn, pr aijhf krnf sMBv nhIN hY ikAuNik kMijLAUmirjLm df ieh psfr DrqI dy vfqfvrn nUM vwzI pwDr AuWqy nuksfn kr irhf hY aqy ies dI kfiemI leI Kqrf bx irhf hY. 

          svfl AuWTdf hY ik kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn leI pYdf hox vfly KqiraF bfry kI kIqf jfvy? keI lok ies dy hwl leI qknOlOjI `qy tyk rwKx df suJfa idMdy hn. AuhnF df dfavf hY ik vsqF dy Auqpfdn leI vsIlIaF dI Gwt vrqoN krn vflI suDrI hoeI qknOlOjI sfzf iehnF KqiraF qoN bcfa kr skdI hY. pr jy asIN sYWl jF mobfeIl PonF dy ivkfs nUM iek Audfhrn dy qOr `qy dyKIey qF sfnUM pqf lwgdf hY ik qknOlOjI ivwc suDfr ies Kqry nUM TwlH pfAux ivwc eyzI asrdfiek BUimkf nhIN inBf skdf. XUrp dI sMsQf PrYNzjL afP dI arQ ivwc idwqI jfxkfrI anusfr jdoN 1983 ivwc pihlf sYWl Pon mfrkIt ivwc afieaf sI qF Aus df Bfr 1 iklogRfm dy krIb sI. hux do ZfeI dhfikaF qoN bfad mfrkIt ivwc afAux vfly iek aOsq sYWl Pon df Bfr 110 ku gRfm dy nyVy qyVy hY. pr ies nfl sYWl PonF dy Auqpfdn leI vrqy jfx vfly smuwcy vsIilaF ivwc kmI nhIN afeI ikAuNik bysLwk qknOlOjI ivwc suDfr kfrn iek sYWl Pon bxfAux leI Gwt vsIly lgdy hn pr sYWlPonF dI vwD vrqoN aqy PYsLn/stfeIl kfrn cMgy Bly sYWl PonF nUM suwt dyx dy kfrj kfrn smuwcy rUp ivwc sYWlPonF dy Auqpfdn `qy lwgx vfly vsIilaF ivwc vfDf hoieaf hY.

          bhuq sfry lokF vwloN purfxIaF ho geIaF vsqF dI dubfrf vrqoN (rIsfeIkilMg) nUM kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn leI pYdf hox vfly KqiraF df hwl dwisaf jf irhf hY. ies soc dy nqIjy vwjoN dunIaf Br ivwc keI qrHF dy rIsfeIkilMg pRogrfm sLurU hoey hn. bysLwk rIsfeIkilMg vsqF dy Auqpfdn leI vrqy gey kuwJ vsIilaF nUM dubfrf vrqoN ivwc ilafAux ivwc shfeI ho skdI hY. ies dy nfl hI ieh afm lokF nUM vfqfvrn dy bcfa krn dI inwjI ijLMmyvfrI df aihsfs krvf ky AuhnF nUM ieh aihsfs krvf skdI hY ik Auh vI vfqfvrn nUM bcfAux leI kuJ kr rhy hn. pr rIsfeIkilMg dI sB qoN vwzI Gft ieh hY ik ieh kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn leI pYdf hox vfly KqiraF dI muwK ijLMmyvfrI iek ivakqI AuWpr suwt idMdI hY ik Auh ies smwisaf df kfrn hY aqy Auh hI ies smwisaf nUM hwl kr skdf hY. hYdr rOjrjL anusfr rIsfeIkilMg vsqF dy Auqpfdn dy pRbMD nUM iblkuwl awKoN Auhly kr idMdI hY. kMijLAUmirjLm iks qrHF sfzy ajoky afriQk pRbMD dy sMkt ivwc pYdf hoieaf hY, iks qrHF vsqF dy Auqpfdk lokF ivwc vsqF dIaF cfhqF pYdf krdy hn, iks qrHF srkfrF kMijLAUmirjLm nUM qrwkI aqy KusLhflI df pRqIk mMn ky afpxIaF nIqIaF nfl kMijLAUmirjLm dy psfr ivwc Xogdfn pfAuNdIaF hn, rIsfiekilMg dI Dfrnf iehnF sfry svflF dI hoNd qoN awKF mIt lYNdI hY. nqIjy vjoN rIsfeIkilMg hor ijLafdf Auqpfdn, kMijLAUmirjLm aqy kUVy krkt dy Auqpfdn nUM AuqsLfihq krdI hY.

          jy asIN swcmuwc hI kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn dy hwl bfry socxf hY qF sfzy leI kMijLAUmirjLm ipwCy kMm krdI cflk sLkqI (zrfeIivMg Pors) bfry aflocnfqmk njLrIey nfl gOr krnf pvygf. ieh cflk sLkqI hY vsqF dy Auqpfdn df pRbMD. sfnUM ieh svfl krnf pvygf ik kI vsqF dy Auqpfdn df ajokf pRbMD dunIaf dy sfry lokF dIaF loVF dI pUrqI leI kMm kr irhf hY jF ieh dunIaf dy iek-cOQfeI jF iek-iqhfeI lokF leI Auqpfdn kr irhf hY? kI ajokf Auqpfdn pRbMD smuwcy lokF leI KusLhflI pYdf krdf hY, ijs df ik ies dy smrQk dfavf krdy hn, jF ieh dunIaf ivwc bhuq sfry lokF nUM afpxIaF muZlIaF loVF leI loVINdy vsIilaF qoN vMicq kr irhf hY? sB qoN pRmuwK svfl sfnUM ieh krnf pvygf ik kI ieh Auqpfdn pRbMD sstynybl (kfiem rihx Xog) hY? mOjUdf Auqpfdn pRbMD bfry kIqy gey ieho ijhy svfl hI sfnUM kMijLAUmirjLm kfrn vfqfvrn leI pYdf hox vfly KqiraF dy hwl lwBx df rfh idKfAuxgy.

 

(ies lyK ivwc idwqI jfxkfrI dy sRoqF bfry jfxn leI www.watanpunjabi.ca `qy jF www.sukhwanthundal.wordpress.com `qy jfAu)

 

 


POj aqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn

suKvMq huMdl

 sukhwanthundal123@gmail.com

 

     ies smyN DrqI dy vfqfvrn nUM ho rhy nuksfn dI smwisaf iek bhuq vwzI smwisaf bx ky sfhmxy af rhI hY. vwzI pwDr AuWqy ieh vI mMinaf jf cuwkf hY ik DrqI AuWpr vfpr rhIaF mnuwKI srgrmIaF ies smwisaf nUM idno idn hor zUMGf kr rhIaF hn. dunIaf dy AuWc kotI dy ivigafnIaF vwloN ieh ikhf jf irhf hY ik jy mnuwKI srgrmIaF vwloN vfqfvrn nUM phuMcfey jf rhy nuksfn nUM roikaf nf igaf qF nyV BivwK ivwc DrqI df ivnfsL ho jfx dI sMBfvfnf qoN ienkfr nhIN kIqf jf skdf. ies leI jLrUrI hY ik asIN ies smwisaf nUM cMgI qrHF smJIey aqy ies dy hwl leI afpxI afpxI pwDr `qy afpxI smrQf anusfr ikRafsLIl hoeIey. ies smwisaf nUM cMgI qrHF smJx aqy ies bfry ikRafsLIl hox leI jLrUrI hY ik asIN ies dy vwK vwK pihlUaF nUM GoKIey aqy ivcfrIey. ies smwisaf dy AuhnF pihlUaF nUM jfxn dI Kfs koisLsL krIey ijhnF bfry  jfxkfrI afm nhIN imldI. ies smwisaf dy ivakqIgq pwDr dy kfrnF aqy hwlF nUM jfxn dy nfl nfl AuhnF kfrnF nUM vI afpxI jfxkfrI df ihwsf bxfeIey ijhnF df sMbMD sfzy awj dy afriQk, isafsI aqy smfjk pRbMD nfl hY. aijhf krky hI asIN ies smwisaf dy shI aqy pfeydfr hwl lwBx ivwc afpxf Xogdfn pf skFgy. ies lyK df mksd aijhy hI iek muwdy vwl iDafn idvfAuxf hY jo sfzy afriQk aqy isafsI pRbMD nfl bwJf hoieaf hY. ieh muwdf hY POj aqy ies dIaF kfrvfeIaF dI vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux ivwc BUimkf? ieh BUimkf dyKx leI asIN vfqfvrn ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF aqy ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI dy PYlfAux ivwc POj dI BUimkf; bfrUdI surMgF (lYNzmfeInjL) dy ivCfAux nfl vfqfvrn nUM hox vfly nuksfn; hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn aqy sMBfl  dOrfn vfqfvrn df nuksfn; aqy jMg dOrfn jMglF df nuksfn krn ivwc POj aqy Aus dIaF kfrvfeIaF dI BUimkf AuWqy njLr mfrFgy.

 

vfqfvrn ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF PYlfAux ivwc POj dI BUimkf:

     vfqfvrn ivwc mOjUd grIn hfAUs gYsF (kfrbn zfieaOksfeIz, imQyn, nfietrs aOksfeIz aqy Plorokfrbn afid) sUrj dI grmI nUM DrqI dy vfqfvrn ivwc afAux qF idMdIaF hn pr Aus nUM pUrI qrHF vfqfvrn ivwcoN bfhr nhIN inklx idMdIaF. bysLwk ieh gYsF vfqfvrn ivwc kudrqI qOr AuWqy vI huMdIaF hn pr DrqI AuWqy vfpr rhIaF mnuwKI srgrmIaF kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc iehnF gYsF dI mfqrf vwD rhI hY. nqIjy vwjo DrqI df qfpmfn vwD irhf hY ijs nUM ivigafnIaF ny “globl vfrimMg” df nF idwqf hY. ivigafnIaF anusfr qfpmfn dy ies vfDy nfl DrqI AuWqy afAux vflIaF kudrqI afPqF ivwc vfDf ho skdf hY aqy DrqI Auqly jIvn df Kfqmf vI ho skdf hY.

 

     mnuwKI srgrmIaF ivwcoN iek srgrmI ijhVI iek grIn hfAUs gYs - kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz - nUM pYdf krn ivwc vwzI BUimkf inBf rhI hY Auh hY: sfzy vwloN afpxIaF AUrjf loVF leI Pfisl iPAUl (pYtrol, qyl, kolf, gYsF afid) dI vwzI pwDr AuWqy vrqo. amrIkf dI ienvfiermYNtl pRotYksLn eyjMsI anusfr gwzI ivwc bly pYtrol dI iek gYln vfqfvrn ivwc 8[8 iklogRfm jF 19[4 pONz kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz PYlfAuNdI hY aqy zIjLl dI iek gYln vfqfvrn ivwc 10[1 iklogRfm jF 22[2 pONz kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz PYlfAuNdI hY. iehnF qwQF nUM iDafn ivwc rwKidaF hux asIN ieh dyKFgy ik POjI kfrvfeIaF dOrfn ikMnf ku qyl bldf hY aqy ieh bilaf qyl grInhfAUs gYsF nUM vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfAux ivwc ikwzI ku vwzI BUimkf inBfAuNdf hY.

 

     aYnrjI builtn ivwc sohbq kfrbUjL dy Cpy iek afrtIkl anusfr 30 sqMbr 2005 nUM amrIkf dI eyarPors dy 5, 986 hvfeI jhfjL srivs ivwc sn. sMn 2006 dy sLurU ivwc amrIkf dI nyvI kol lVfeI ivwc vrqy jfx vfly aqy shfiek 285 smuMdrI jhfjL sn aqy 4000 dy krIb EprysLnl eyarkrfPt (hvfeI jhfjL aqy hYlIkOptr) sn. sMn 2005 dy aKIr ivwc amrIkf dI afrmI kol 28,000 bkqrbMd gwzIaF df PlIt sI ijhnF ivwc aYbrYmjL tYNk aqy brYzlI PfeIitMg ivhIkljL vrgIaF gwzIaF sLfml sn. iehnF qoN ielfvf amrIkf dI afrmI aqy mYrIn kOrps kol 1, 40,000 hfeI-moibltI mltIprpjL vIlz ivhIkljL sn. ies dy nfl nfl afrmI kol 4000 jMgI hYlIkOptr aqy keI sO ivMg eyarkrfPt sn. iehnF dy nfl amrIkf dy izpfrtmYNt afP izPYNs kol kfrF, bwsF, hlky trwkF afid vrgIaF 1, 87, 493 gwzIaF hn. )

 

     dI grIn jLon: dI ienvfiermYNtl kOsts afP imltrIjLm dy lyKk bYrI sYNzrjL anusfr amrIkf dI afrmI, nyvI aqy eyar Pors kol 43 qrHF dy lVfky jhfjL (PfeItr plynjL), 11 qrHF dy hmlfvfrI jhfjL (atYk plynjL), 13 qrHF dy bMbfr jhfjL (bMbrjL), 16 qrHF dy Bfr Zox vfly jhfjL (kfrgo plynjL) aqy nON vwK vwK iksmF dy hYlIkOptr hn. ies dy nfl nfl imltrI dy AuWc aPsrF dI vrqoN leI amrIkf dI POj kol eyar moibltI kmFz jF ey aYWm sI nF dI afpxI eyarlfeIn hY. ies qoN ielfvf POj dy jrnYlF aqy aYzmfierlF dI inwjI vrqoN leI imltrI kol 71 lIar jYWt, 13 glPstrIm iqMn aqy 17 sYsnf sfeItysLn lgjLrI jYWt hn.

 

     amrIkn POj dIaF ieh msLInF ikMnf ku qyl KFdIaF hn aqy ikMnI ku kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc CwzdIaF hn, ies bfry bYrI sYNzrjL ny afpxI ikqfb ivwc bhuq ivsQfr nfl iliKaf hY. Aus ivwc kuwJ jfxkfrI pfTkF nfl sFJIaF krdy hF. sB qoN pihlF amrIkn afrmI vloN huMdI qyl dI Kpq bfry kuwJ qwQ:

 

* aYbrYm tYNk iek mIl df Pfslf qih krn leI 5 gYln qyl KFdf hY. ies tYNk dy trbfeIn nUM stfrt krn leI hI 10 gYln qyl lwg jFdf hY. lVfeI dOrfn, sOKy Drfql AuWqy ieh tYNk GMty df 252 gYln qyl (jy pI-8 jYWt iPAUl) Kf jFdf hY. iewQy not krn vflI gwl ieh hY ik  jy pI -8 jYWt iPAUl afm pYtrol dy mukfbly ijLafdf kfrbnzfiekaOksfeIz Cwzdf hY. tYNkF dI iek izvIjLn, ijs ivwc 348 tYNk huMdy hn, pUry iek idn ivwc 5 lwK gYln qyl Cwk jFdI hY. iek smyN amrIkI POj dy ierfk ivwc 1848 aYbrYm tYNk sn aqy POj AuhnF sfiraF nUM cwldf rwKx dI koisLsL krdI sI. ies df arQ ieh hoieaf ik ierfk ivwc qfienfq ieh tYNk iek idn ivwc 26[5 lwK gYln dy krIb qyl Kpq krdy sn. amrIkn ienvfiermYNtl pRotYksLn eyjMsI anusfr iek pirvfrk kfr aOsqn sfl ivwc 500 gYln qyl KFdI hY. ies df Bfv ieh hoieaf ik ijMnf qyl 1000 kfrF sfl ivwc KFdIaF hn, Aunf qyl aYbrYm tYNkF dI iek izvIjLn iek idn ivwc Kf jFdI hY.

 

* afrmI df apfcI hYlIkOptr iek gYln jYWt iPAUl nfl awDf mIl kwZdf hY. iek rfq dI ryz ivwc apfcI btflIan dy hYlIkoptrF df iek joVf 60,000 gYln jYWt iPAUl Kf jFdf hY.

    

     amrIkn nyvI vwloN kIqI jFdI qyl dI Kpq df afpxf hI aMdfjL hY. sMn 1991 ivwc amrIkn nyvI dy iek eyarkrfPt kYrIar XU[ aYWs[ aYWs ieMzIpYNizt dI qyl dI Kpq bfry ies dy rih cuwky iek kmFzr ny ies qrHF ibafn kIqf sI:   

 

 

vIaqnfm dy smuMdrI qwt nyVy qfienfq ieh jhfjL rojL df 1,00000 gYln qyl KFdf hY. hr cMhu idnF bfad ieMzIpYNizt 10 lwK gYln qyl lYNdf sI - ijs ivwcoN awDf qyl ies AuWprly jYWt jhfjL Kpq kr idMdy sn. 14 idnF ivwc Pfrs dI KfVI (prsLIan glP) qwk phuMcx leI ieh smuMdrI jhfjL 20 lwK gYln qoN vwD qyl Kf jfvygf. Pfrs dI KfVI ivwc isrP KVHf KVHf hI ieh jhfjL, hr rojL 3 lwK 80 hjLfr gYln pfxI sfP krn leI aqy 40,000 lokF dI vsoN vfly iek sLihr dI loV ijMnI ibjlI pYdf krn leI vwzI mfqrf ivwc qyl Kf jfvygf.

 

     kuwl imlf ky amrIkn nyvI kol 13 eyarkrfPt kYrIar hn. bysLwk XU[ aYWs[ aYWs[ ieMzIpYNizt nUM amrIkn nyvI ny sMn 1998 ivwc 48 sflF dI vrqoN qoN bfad irtfier kr idwqf sI. pr ies dI qyl dI Kpq bfry Auprokq ibafn qoN sihjy hI aMdfjLf lfieaf jf skdf hY ik amrIkn nyvI dy dUsry eyarkrfPt kYrIar ikMnI vwzI mfqrf ivwc qyl dI Kpq krdy hoxgy.

     amrIkf dI eyarPors POj dIaF sfrIaF sLfKfvF qoN vwD qyl dI Kpq krdI hY.ies bfry kuwJ AudfhrnF ies pRkfr hn:

 

* sMn 2006 ivwc eyarPors ny 2[6 arb gYln jYWt iPAUl vriqaf sI. eyarPors dy vwzy hYlIkOptr iek mIl ipwCy 5 gYln qyl KFdy hn. pr qyl dI ieh Kpq eyar Pors dy lVfky jhfjLF vwloN KfDy jFdy qyl dy mukfbly kuwJ vI nhIN. Audfhrn leI aYWP-4 PYNtm PfeItr iek GMty ivwc 1600 gYln qyl KFdf hY. aYWP-15 iek GMty ivwc 1580 gYln qyl KFdf hY aqy aYWP-16 iek GMty ivwc 1680 gYln qyl KFdf hY. asIN dyK skdy hF ik ijMnf qyl iek pirvfrk kfr iqMnF sflF ivwc KFdI hY, Aunf jF Aus qoN vwD qyl ieh PfeItr jhfjL iek GMty ivwc Kf jFdy hn.

 

jdoN iksy lVfky jhfjL nUM suprsOink spIz (avfjL dI rPqfr, 1236 iklomItr pRqI GMtf, nfloN vwD spIz) `qy AuzfAuxf huMdf hY qF pfielt leI jhfjL dy afPtrbrnrF nUM cflU krnf jLrUrI hY. ies nfl jhfjL dI spIz iqMn guxF qwk ho skdI hY aqy qyl dI Kpq 20 guxF vwD jFdI hY. jdoN aYWP-15 lVfky jhfjL dy afPtrbrnr cflU huMdy hn qf ieh iek sikMt ivwc cfr gYln Bfv iek GMty ivwc 14, 400 gYln qyl KFdf hY.

 

eyarPors df bI-52 bMbfr jhfjL afPtrbrnrF qoN ibnF iek GMty ivwc 3334 gYln qyl KFdf hY. ieh jhfjL 10 imntF ivwc Aunf qyl Kf jFdf hY ijMnf aOsqn qyl iek pirvfrk kfr sfl ivwc KFdI hY. jy bI-52 bMbfr jhfjL dI vrqoN lMmy smyN leI krnI hovy qF ies ivwc asmfn ivwc dubfrf qyl pfAuxf pYNdf hY. amrIkn eyarPors ky sI-135 strYtotYNkr aqy ky sI-10 aYkstYNzr nfmI jhfjL asmfn ivwc dUsry jhfjLF ivwc qyl pfAux leI vrqdI hY. ky sI-10 aYkstYNzr dy qyl stor krn dI smrwQf 60,000 gYln hY. ijMnf qyl ieh jhfjL stor kr skdf hY Aus nfl iek pirvfr aOsqn qOr AuWqy 120 sflF leI afpxI kfr clf skdf hY. not krn vflI gwl ieh hY ik amrIkn eyar Pors kol 94 bI-52 aYWc bMbfr jhfjL hn.

 

     AuNJ qF eyarPors dI qyl dI Kpq bfry Auprly qwQ kfPI jfxkfrI dy idMdy hn pr asIN ies sMbMD ivwc iek hor jfxkfrI pfTkF nfl sFJI krnI cfhFgy. ieh jfxkfrI jMg dy dOrfn eyarPors dy bMbfr jhfjLF vwloN zkfry jFdy qyl nfl sMbMDq hY.

 

* jdoN 7 akqUbr 2001 nUM amrIkf ny aPgfinsqfn AuWqy hvfeI hmlf kIqf qF ies hmly ivwc nyvI aqy eyarPors dy bI-2, aYWP-14, aYWP/ey-18, bI-52 bMbfr afid jhfjLF ny ihwsf ilaf. nyvI dy jhfjLF ny afpxy insLfny qoN 500 mIl dUr arb sfgr ivwcly eyarkrfPt kYrIar qoN aqy eyarPors dy jhfjLF ny ihMd mhF sfgr ivcly eyarbys zIgo gfrsIaf qoN Auzfxf BrIaF. hor lVfky jhfjLF ny Pfrs dI KfVI (prsLIan glP) ivwcoN AuzfxF BrIaF. zIgo gfrsIaf qoN AuzfxF Brn vfly jhfjLF ny 12-15 GMty dy smyN leI AuzfxF BrIaF aqy 5,500 mIl dy nyVy qyVy sPr kIqf. Xfd rhy ik iek bI-52 bMbfr jhfjL iek GMty ivwc 3334 gYln jYWt iPAUl KFdf hY, ies leI 12-15 GMty dI PlfeIt dOrfn hr iek bI-52 bMbfr jhfjL ny  40000-50,000 gYln dy nyVy qyl KfDf. Aus rfq dy hvfeI hmly ivwc 10 bI-52 bMbfrF ny ihwsf ilaf. ijs df arQ hY ik iekwly bI-52 bMbfr jhfjF ny hI Aus iek rfq ivwc 5,00,000 gYln qyl KfDf.

 

     ies  dy nfl jy asIN dUsry bMbfr jhfjLF, Pfrs dI KfVI ivwc KVHy nyvI dy eyarkrfPt kYrIar jhfjLF, aqy asmfn ivwc jhfjLF nUM qyl splfeI krn vfly jhfjLF vwloN KfDy qyl dI mfqrf vI joV leIey qF ies hvfeI hmly dOrfn hr iek rfq ivwc Kpq hoey kuwl qyl dI mfqrf bI-52 bMbfr jhfjLF vwloN KfDy qyl dI mfqrf nfl ikqy ijLafdf vwD jFdI hY. iewQy Xfd rwKx vflI gwl ieh vI hY ik 7 akqUbr 2001 nUM sLurU hoieaf ieh hvfeI hmlf keI idn cwldf irhf sI. so ies hmly dOrfn ikMnI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc geI hovygI, ies df aMdfjLf pfTk afp hI lf skdy hn.

     ies hI qrHF jdoN 19 mfrc 2003 nUM  amrIkf vwloN ierfk AuWqy hmlf kIqf igaf qF Aus rfq bgdfd AuWpr hmlf krn leI 1700 hvfeI jhfjLF ny ihwsf ilaf ijhnF ivwc bMbfr, lVfky aqy hor keI qrHF dy jMgI jhfjL sLfml sn. iehnF jhfjLF ny ikMnf qyl KfDf hovygf aqy ikMnI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc CwzI hovygI ies dI klpnf pfTk afp kr skdy hn.

      amrIkI POj dIaF kuwJ vwK vwK msLInF vloN Kpq kIqy jFdy qyl dI mfqrf bfry pVH ky mn ivwc ieh svfl AuWTxf suBfvk hI hY ik amrIkn POj sfl ivwc ikMnf qyl Kpq krdI hY. bYrI sYNzrjL anusfr amrIkf dI POj hr rojL 10 lwK bYrl qyl Kpq krdI hY aqy hr rojL 40 kroV pONz jF do lwK tMn dy brfbr grInhfAUs gYsF vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfAuNdI hY. jy  asIN sfl df ihsfb lfeIey qF amrIkf dI POj hr sfl 146 arb pONz jF 7 kRoV 30 lwK tMn kfrbn vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfAuNdI hY.

      nysLnmfstr[kfm AuWpr 2007 dy ihsfb anusfr dunIaF dy vwK vwK dysLF vloN qyl dI rojLfnf Kpq dy aMkVy idwqy gey hn. iehnF aMkiVaF anusfr dunIaF dy isrP aTfrF dysL aijhy hn jo hr rojL ds lwK bYrl nfloN vwD qyl Kpq krdy hn. kRmvfr ieh dysL hn: amrIkf, cIn, jfpfn, rUs, Bfrq, jrmnI, brfjLIl, knyzf, sfAUdI arbIaf, dwKxI  korIaf, mYksIko, PrFs, ieMglYNz, ietlI, ierfn, spyn aqy ieMzonysLIaf. ies df arQ ieh hoieaf ik amrIkf dI POj iehnF dysLF qoN ibnF dunIaF dy hor iekwly iekwly dysL nfloN vwD qyl Kpq krdI hY aqy ies kfrn AuhnF dysLF qoN vwD kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc PYlfAuNdI hY.

      ies dy nfl hI iek hor qwQ not krn vflf hY ik iek pirvfrk kfr sfl ivwc 10 hjLfr pONz dy brfbr dI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqvrn ivwc PYlfAuNdI hY. ies ihsfb nfl amrIkf dI imltrI iek sfl ivwc AunI kfrbnzfieaOksfeIz vfqfvrn ivwc CwzdI hY ijMnI kfrbnzfiekaOksfeIz 1 kroV 46 lwK kfrF sfl ivwc CwzdIaF hn.

 

vfqfvrn ivwc ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI PYlfAux ivwc POj dI BUimkf:

     ipCly kuwJ sflF dOrfn sfhmxy afeIaF vwK vwK irportF qoN ieh gwl sfP hoeI hY ik amrIkf aqy Aus dIaF BfeIvfl POjF ny ierfk aqy aPgfinsqfn ivwc aqy nYto dIaF POjF ny kOsvo ivwc aijhy hiQafrF dI vrqoN kIqI hY ijhnF ivwc izplIitz XurynIam vriqaf igaf sI. jdoN kudrqI XurynIam nUM prmfxU ibjlI pYdf krn vfly rIaYktrF ivwc bflx leI iqafr (ienirwc) kIqf jFdf hY qF Aus aml dOrfn bfeI pRozkt (rihMd KUhMd) dy rUp ivwc izplIitz XUrynIam pYdf huMdf hY. ieh XurynIam bhuq Kqrnfk pwDr qwk ryzIEaYkitv huMdf hY. pr ies dI iek KUbI ieh vI hY ik ieh tYNkF aqy kMkrIt dy moricaF nUM bhuq sOiKaF hI qoVH skdf hY. pYNtfgn dy afpxy sLbdF ivwc, ijs qrHF “iek grm cfkU mwKx nUM kwtdf hY” Aus qrHF izplItz XurynIam tYNkF aqy hor POjI bkqrbMd gwzIaF nUM kwtdf hY. ies leI ipCly kuwJ dhfikaF dOrfn POj ny ies nUM bMbF, imjLfielF aqy goilaF ivwc vrqxf sLurU kr idwqf hY.

      jdoN izplIitz XurynIam dy isry vflf golf jF imjLfiel iksy tYNk jF kMkrIt dy morcy nfl vwj ky Pwtdf hY qF ieh bhuq AuWcy qfpmfn AuWqy bldf hoieaf iek awg df BFbV pYdf krdf hY. AuWcy qfpmfn kfrn ieh tYNk dI motI cfdr jF morcy dI keI mItr motI kMkrIt dI qih nUM pfVdf hoieaf afpxy sMprk ivwc afAux vflI hr cIjL nUM rfK ivwc qbdIl kr idMdf hY. XurynIam aOksfeIz nfl BrpUr ieh rfK bhuq hI ryzIEaYkitv huMdI hY aqy hvf nfl AuWz  ky keI mIlF qwk jf skdI hY, sfh lYx nfl mnuwKI srIr aMdr dfKl ho skdI hY, bUitaF aqy drwKqF aqy jfnvrF vloN jjLb kIqI jf skdI hY aqy sfzIaF Kfx pIx dIaF vsqF df ihwsf bx skdI hY. DrqI ivwc jjLb hox qoN bfad ieh DrqI hyTly pfxI ivwc rl skdI hY aqy Aus ivwc XurynIam dI imkdfr nUM sYNkVy guxF vDf skdI hY. iek vfr vfqfvrn ivwc PYlx qoN bfad izplItz XurynIam vfqfvrn ivwc arbF sfl rihMdf hY ikAuNik ies dI “hfP-lfeIP” 4[5 arb sfl hY.

      vfqfvrn qoN mnuwKI srIr ivwc phuMicaf izplItz XurynIam mnuwKF `qy keI qrHF dy mfrU asr pfAuNdf hY. ies nfl kYNsr ho skdI hY. ies dI mfr hyT afey mfipaF dy jMmx vfly bwcy apMg pYdf ho skdy hn. ies nfl mnuwK dy aMdrly aMg PylH ho skdy hn aqy ivakqI ivwc eyzjL vrgy lwCx pYdf ho skdy hn.

      ipCly kuwJ sflF dOrfn jMgF ivwc amrIkI aqy Aus dIaF BfeIvfl POjF ny ikMnf ku izplItz XurynIam vfqfvrx ivwc PYlfieaf hY? ies bfry vwK vwK irportF ivwc idwqI jfxkfrI ivwcoN kuwJ aMkVy sLfml hn. dfhr jmyl anusfr sMn 2003 dy hmly dOrfn amrIkf aqy brqfnIaf dIaF POjF ny ierfk ivwc 1700 tMn qoN vwD izplItz XurynIam vriqaf sI aqy 1991 dI KfVI dI jMg (glP vfr) dOrfn 320 tMn izplItz XurynIam vriqaf igaf sI. bYrI sYNzrjL anusfr sMn 1991 dI KfVI jMg smyN amrIkI POjF AuWqy bMdsLF sn ik Auh izpiltz XurynIan dI vrqoN mfrUQl ivwc mnuwKI vsoN qoN dUr hI kr skdIaF sn. pr 2003 dI ierfk dI jMg dOrfn ies qrHF dIaF bMdsLF nhIN sn. nqIjy vjoN ies vfr POj vloN izplItz XurynIam dI vrqoN vsoN vfly ielfikaF ivwc vI kIqI geI. ilAurYn morYt anusfr  sMn 2001 ivwc aPgfinsqfn ivwc 800 qoN 1000 tMn izplItz XurynIam vriqaf igaf sI.

      ierfk aqy aPgfinsqfn ivwc izplItz XurynIam dI vrqoN AuWQoN dy lokF dI ishq AuWpr bhuq hI mfrU asr pf rhI hY. ierfk bfry CpIaF bhuq sfrIaF irportF aqy aiDan ieh drsfAuNdy hn ik ierfk dIaF dovyN jMgF qoN bfad AuWQoN dy lokF ivwc kYNsr dI bImfrI bhuq ijLafdf vwD geI hY. ierfk dI klfkfrf aqy lyKkf nuhf al rfdI dI zfierI (bgdfd zfierIjL) ivwcoN kuwJ sLbd ies siQqI df ies qrHF ibafn krdy hn:

 

jfpdf hY ik hr koeI kYNsr nfl mr irhf hY. hr rojL iksy dosq jF imwqr dy mrn dI Kbr suxn nUM imldI hY. hspqflF ivwc hor ikMny lok mrdy hn ijhnF nUM asIN nhIN jfxdy. jLfhrf qOr `qy 30 PIsdI qoN vwD ierfkI lokF nUM kYNsr hY, aqy bhuq sfry bwicaF nUM lkImIaf. amrIkf dy bMbF kfrn ipwCy rih gey XurynIam ny ierfk nUM kYNsr pIVq dysL bxf idwqf hY. afAux vfly sYNkVy sflF dOrfn izplItz XurynIam ierfk aqy ies dy afly duafly dy ielfikaF ivwc afpxf kihr vrqfAuNdf rhygf.

 

     PrvrI 2010 ivwc aljjLIrf dy vYWbsfeIt AuWpr Cpy iek afrtIkl ivwc jlfl gfjLI ilKdf hY ik bgdfd dy dwKx dy sUby bfibl ivwc 2004 ivwc kYNsr dI bImfrI dy 500 kys sn aqy sMn 2009 ivwc iehnF kysF dI igxqI 9082 qwk phuMc geI sI. ies hI qrHF sMn 2005 ivwc ierfk dy sLihr bsry ivwc kYNsr dy 1885 kys sn aqy sMn 2007 ivwc ieh igxqI 3071 ho geI sI. AuWQoN dy kYNsr nfl sMbMDq sYNtr dy zfierYktr df kihxf hY ik hux  hr mhIny 1250 qoN 1500 kYNsr dy mrIjL Aus dy sYNtr ivwc afAuNdy hn.

      iehnF ielfikaF dy vfqfvrn ivwc izplItz XurynIam dy PYlx kfrn AuWQoN dy lokF ivwc isrP kYNsr dI bImfrI hI nhIN vwD rhI sgoN AuWQy jMmx vfly bwcy vI apMg pYdf ho rhy hn. sMn 2004 ivwc amrIkf dIaF POjF ny PlUjf AuWpr bhuq vwzI bMbfrI kIqI sI.  nqIjy vwjoN ies smyN AuWQy jMmx vfly 25 PIsdI bwicaF ivwc koeI nf koeI gMBIr ivgfV huMdf hY. iek hor irport anusfr dwKxI ierfk ivwc bhuq sfry aijhy bwcy pYdf ho rhy hn ijhnF dy idmfg nhIN hn, ijhnF dy aMdrUnI aMg srIr dy bfhr hn, keI bwicaF dy jxn-aMg nhIN hn, keIaF dy rIV dIaF hwzIaF nhIN hn. ierfk ivwc jMmx vfly bwicaF ivwc koeI gMBIr ivgfV hox df eynf vwzf Kqrf hY ik afm qOr `qy bwcy dy jnm  `qy mfvF  ieh nhIN puwCdIaF ik bwcf muMzf hY jF kuVI sgoN ieh puwCdIaF hn ik bwcy ivwc koeI ivgfV qF nhIN.

      aPgfinsqfn dy ijhnF ielfikaF ivwc vI izplItz XurynIam vfly bMbF dI vrqoN kIqI geI sI, AuhnF ielfikaF ivwc vI keI qrHF nfl apMg bwcy pYdf ho rhy hn. aPgfn izplItz XurynIam aqy rIkvrI PMz dy zfierYktr zf: dfAud imrfkI df kihxf hY ik pwCmI aqy dwKxI-pwCmI aPgfinsqfn ivwc jMmx vfly bwicaF ivwcoN keIaF dy awKF nhIN huMdIaF,  keIaF dy hwQ-pYr nhIN huMdy aqy keIaF dy mUMhF aqy awKF ivwc bfhr nUM vDIaF hoeIaF rsOlIaF huMdIaF hn.   

      bysLwk amrIkI POj vwloN ieh mMnx qoN ienkfr kIqf jf irhf hY ik ierfk aqy aPgfinsqfn ivwc lokF ivwckfr ies qrHF dIaF bImfrIaF dy vfDy aqy iehnF dysLF dIaF jMgF dOrfn vrqy gey izplItz XurynIam df koeI sMbMD hY, pr bhuq sfry lok aqy zfktr ieh dfavf kr rhy hn ik iehnF dohF df iswDf sMbMD hY. ijvyN pihlF ikhf jf cuwkf hY ik iek vfr vfqfvrn ivwc PYilaf XurynIam afAux vfly hjLfrF sflF qwk rihMdf hY, ies leI ieh nqIjf kwZxf koeI glq nhIN ik bysLwk ieh jMgF Kqm vI ho jfx aqy ivdysLI POjF iehnF dysLF qoN bfhr vI af jfx, iPr vI iehnF dysLF dy lok vfqfvrn dy ies pRdUsLn kfrn afAux vfly lMmy smyN qwk duwK Jldy rihxgy.

      bysLwk iewQy asIN amrIkf aqy Aus dy BfeIvflF vwloN izplItz XurynIam vfly hiQafr vrqx dIaF AudfhrnF hI idwqIaF hn pr kYNpn agyNst izplItz XurynIam dy iek lIPlYWt anusfr ies smyN dunIaf ivwc 18 dysLF kol ieh hiQafr hn. ieh dysL hn: XU[ky[, amrIkf, PrFs, rUs, cIn, grIs, qurkI, QfeIlYNz, qfievfn, iejLrfiel, bihrIn, imsr, kuvyq, sfAUdI arbIaf, ihMdusqfn, bYlrUs, pfiksqfn aqy Emfn. sfP hY ik iehnF dysLF vwloN ieh hiQafr vrqy jfx dI sMBfvnf sdf bxI rhygI. iehnF dysLF ivwc bhuiqaF nUM ieh hiQafr amrIkf vwloN vycy gey hn pr XU[ ky[, PrFs aqy pfiksqfn ny ieh hiQafr afpxy qOr AuWqy iqafr kIqy hn.

 

bfrUdI surMgF (lYNz mfeInjL) aqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn

       XUnIvristI afP kYlyPornIaf dy eIkoisstm sfieMsjL izvIjLn nfl sMbMDq ey[ ey[ brHy anusfr ies smyN dunIaf Br ivwc DrqI hyT ivCfeIaF geIaF bfrUdI surMgF (lYNz mfeInjL) dI igxqI 8-12 kRoV dy ivckfr hY. ieh bfrUdI surMgF cfr mhFdIpF- aPrIkf, amrIkf, eysLIaf aqy XUrp - dy 90 dysLF dI DrqI hyT ivCIaF peIaF hn. iehnF ivwcoN keI dysLF ivwc bfrUdI surMgF dI igxqI bhuq hI Kqrnfk pwDr qwk phuMcI hoeI hY. Audfhrn leI kMbozIaf aqy bOsnIaf dy hr iek nfgirk dy ihwsy DrqI hyT ivCfeI iek iek bfrUdI surMg afAuNdI hY. aPgfinsqfn, ierfk, kroeysLIaf, iertIrIaf aqy suzfn dy hr do nfgirkF dy ihwsy iek iek bfrUdI surMg afAuNdI hY. iehnF bfrUdI surMgF kfrn dunIaf ivwc hr hPqy 800 lok mfry jFdy hn aqy 1200 dy krIb lok apfhj bxdy hn. DrqI hyT ivCIaF ieh bfrUdI surMgF isrP eynI vwzI igxqI ivwc lokF nUM mfrdIaF jF apfhj hI nhIN bxfAuNdIaF sgoN ieh vfqfvrn nUM vI gMBIr nuksfn phuMcfAuNdIaF hn.

      bfrUdI surMgF kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hox vflf sB qoN vwzf nuksfn ieh hY ik iehnF kfrn DrqI df bhuq sfrf ihwsf vrqoN ivwc nhIN ilaFdf jf skdf. jy jLmIn dy iksy tukVy ivwc iek vI bfrUdI surMg ivCfeI hox df Kqrf hovy qF Auh sfrf tukVf vriqaf nhIN jf skdf. iek aMdfjLy anusfr bfrUdI surMgF kfrn ies smyN dunIaF Br ivwc 9 lwK vrg iklomItr (9 kroV hYktyar) DrqI vrqoN dy aXog ho geI hY jF nuksfnI geI hY. ilibaf dI 8[9 PIsdI KyqIXog jLmIn, iertIrIaf dI 5 PIsdI DrqI ivwc bfrUdI surMgF ivCIaF hoeIaF hn, ijs dy nqIjy vwjoN ies DrqI ivwc KyqI nhIN kIqI jf skdI. bOsnIaf dy kuwl KyqrPl dy 3[6 PIsdI ihwsy (1820 vrg iklomItr) ivwc bfrUdI surMgF ivCfeIaF hoeIaF hn, ies leI eynI DrqI vrqoN qoN bfhr hY. ihAUmn rfeIts vfc dI iek irport anusfr aPgfinsqfn ivwc 72 kroV 40 lwK vrg mItr DrqI bfrUdI surMgF dI mfr hyT hY. ieh bfrUdI surMgF sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan dIaF POjF, nfrdrn alfieMs ijhVy hux XUnfietz PrMt dy nF nfly jfxy jFdy hn aqy amrIkf dy imwqr hn afid vwloN ivCfeIaF geIaF hn. nfrdrn alfieMs nUM ieh bfrUdI surMgF awsIivaF ivwc amrIkf vwloN idwqIaF geIaF sn. ieh bfrUdI surMgF pyNzU aqy sLihrI ielfikaF ivwc cfrgfhF, KyqIXog jLmInF, isMcfeI pRbMDF, irhfiesLI ielfikaF, sVkF aqy rsiqaF ivwc ivCfeIaF geIaF hn.

      KyqIXog jLmIn ivwc bfrUdI surMgF dy ivCy hox nfl AuhnF dysLF dy KyqI-Auqpfdn ivwc kmI afAuNdI hY ijhnF dysLF ivwc bfrUdI surMgF dI smwisaf bhuq gMBIr hY. brHy sMn 2000 ivwc Cpy iek aiDan dy hvfly nfl ilKdf hY ik jy aPgfinsqfn, kMbozIaf, bOsnIaf aqy mojLMbIk ivwc bfrUdI surMgF nf huMdIaF qF sMn 2000 ivwc jMg qoN pihlF dy Auqpfdn dy mukfbly aPgfinsqfn ivwc KyqI Auqpfdn 88-200 PIsdI, kMbozIaf ivwc 135 PIsdI, bOsnIaf ivwc 11 PIsdI aqy mojLMbIk ivwc 3[6 PIsdI vwD skdf sI. ies dy nfl hI brHy aPrIkf dy sb-shfrf ielfky dI siQqI bfry ihsfb lf ky dsdf hY ik jy dunIaF Br ivwc bfrUdI surMgF kfrn KyqI dy Xog nf rih geI 9 lwK vrg iklomItr DrqI dy cOQy ihwsy ivwc hI bfrUdI surMgF nf huMdIaF aqy ieh jLmIn vfhI aDIn huMdI qF Aus ivwcoN pYdf hox vfly anfj nfl sb-shfrf ielfky dy 16 lwK lokF nUM sfl Br leI Kfxf iKlfieaf jf skdf sI.

      iek vfr ijhVI DrqI ivwc bfrUdI surMgF ivC jfx, Aus DrqI nUM sfP krky dubfrf vrqoN Xog bxfAuxf bhuq aOKf aqy mihMgf kMm hY. ies leI bfrUdI surMgF vflI DrqI vfly dysLF dy lokF nUM bfrUdI surMgF dy nqIjy sYNkVy sflF qwk Bugqxy pYxgy. Audfhrn leI iek bfrUdI surMg nUM ivCfAux df Krcf 3 zflr afAuNdf pr Aus nUM lwB ky DrqI qoN bfhr kwZx df Krcf 300 - 1000 zflr dy ivckfr hY. jy bfrUdI surMgF ivCfAux df kfrj iek dm pUrI qrHF bMd vI kr idwqf jfvy qF hux qwk ivCfeIaF jf cuwkIaF bfrUdI  surMgF nUM htfAux leI 33 arb zflr Krc afAuxgy aqy ijMny lok ies kMm ivwc lwgy hoey hn aqy iehnF nUM htfAux leI ijs qrHF dI qknOlojI mOjUd hY, Aus  dy ihsfb nfl dunIaf ivwc hux qwk ivCfeIaF jf cuwkIaF bfrUdI surMgF nUM htfAux leI 1100 sfl lwgxgy.

 

hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn aqy sMBfl  dOrfn vfqfvrn df nuksfn 

     hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn, sMBfl, murMmq aqy Zoaf-ZuafeI dOrfn vwzI pwDr AuWqy jLihrIly pdfrQ pYdf huMdy hn aqy vfqfvrn df nuksfn krdy hn. ies sMbMD ivwc asIN jIv-ivigafnk (bfieElOjIkl), rsfiexk (kYmIkl) aqy prmfxU (inAUklIar) hiQafrF dy sMbMD ivwc kuwJ AudfhrnF dyK skdy hF.

      iPjIsLn Pfr globl srvfeIvl (kYnyzf) leI sMn 2004 ivwc iqafr kIqI afpxI irport ivwc abIr mjId ilKdf hY ik dUjI sMsfr jMg dy aKIr `qy qkrIbn qkrIbn Aus lVfeI ivwc ihwsf lYx vfly hr vwzy dysL df afpxf afpxf bfieElOjIkl hiQafr bxfAux df pRogrfm sI. ieh hiQafr bxfAux vflIaF aqy iehnF hiQafrF nUM tYst krn  vflIaF QFvF ajy vI bImfrIaF dy BMzfr hn. mjId ny afpxI irport ivwc amrIkf, sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan, XU[ ky[ aqy jfpfn dIaF muwK QFvF dI ilst idwqI hY. Aus anusfr amrIkf ny 6 bfieElOjIkl eyjMtF df hiQafrF ivwc iesqymfl kIqf sI aqy 23 hor eyjMtF AuWqy Koj kIqI sI. (iewQy eyjMt qoN Bfv hY koeI vI aijhf bYktIrIaf jF vfiers jF jLihrIlf pdfrQ ijs dI jMg ivwc bfieElOjIkl hiQafr vjoN vrqoN kIqI jf sky.)  sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan ny 10 bfieElOjIkl eyjMtF df hiQafrF ivwc iesqymfl kIqf sI aqy 16 hor eyjMtF AuWqy Koj kIqI sI. XU[ ky[ ny aYNQrYks df hiQafrF ivwc iesqymfl kIqf sI aqy ies qoN ibnF plyg, tfeIPfeIz aqy bOtUiln tOkisn AuWqy Koj kIqI sI. jfpfn ny 8 bfieElOjIkl eyjMtF df hiQafrF ivwc iesqymfl kIqf sI aqy 9 hor eyjMtF AuWqy Koj kIqI sI.  

      jnyvf siQwq ieMtrnYsLnl pIs ibEro vwloN sMn 2002 pRkfsLq kIqy iek aiDan “dI imltrIjL ieMpYkt afn dI ienvfiermYNt: ey nYglYktz aYspYkt afP dI sstynybl izvYlpmYNt irport” ivwc dfavf kIqf igaf sI ik amrIkf kuwJ aijhy PMgI (AuWlIaF) aqy vfiersF AuWqy Koj kr irhf sI ijhVy aPIm, zoizaF, BMg aqy kokf dy bUitaF df nfsL kr skxgy. iehnF vfiersF nUM AuhnF QFvF AuWqy vrqx dI Xojnf sI ijwQy aPIm, zoizaF, BMg aqy koky dI gYr-kfnUMnI KyqI kIqI jFdI hY. amrIkf kolMbIaf aqy brmf vrgy dysLF AuWqy iehnF vfiersF dI vrqoN krn leI jLor pf irhf sI. ies aiDan ivwc ieh iPkr jLfhr kIqf igaf sI ik amrIkf vwloN aijhf krn nfl bfieElOjIkl hiQafrF dI vrqoN bfry aMqrrfsLtrI mnfhIaF dy kmjLor hox aqy mnuwKI ishq aqy vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn hox df vwzf Kqrf hY. aiDan anusfr jy iehnF PMgI (AuWlIaF) dI vrqoN kIqI geI qF AuhnF AuuWqy kMtrol krnf bhuq musLikl hovygf aqy Auh vrqoN dy afpxy imwQy ielfky qoN bfhr jf ky vfqfvrn dI pRdUsLnqf df kfrn bx jfxgy.

      bfieElOjIkl hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn qoN ibnF iehnF nUM sMBflx aqy iehnF nUM nsLt krn smyN vI vfqfvrn dy pRdUsLn df Kqrf bixaf rihMdf hY. ies sMbMD ivwc sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan vwloN aYNQrYks nUM DrqI hyT dwbx dI Audfhrn dyKI jf skdI hY. sMn 1988 ivwc sovIaq XUnIan dy ivigafnIaF ny sYNkVy tMn aYNQrYks stynlYWs stIl dy ZolF ivwc pf ky arl smuMdr dy iek tfpU - vojLrodIinaf afeIlYNz - AuWpr 11 toieaF ivwc dwb idwqI sI. ies aYNQrYks nUM DrqI hyT dwbx qoN pihlF ZolF ivwc ies AuWpr blIc pfieaf igaf sI qFik aYNQrYks dy bIjfxUaF nUM nsLt kIqf jf sky. sMn 1999 ivwc jdoN Aus QF dI imwtI dy tYWst kIqy gey ijwQy ieh aYNQrYks dwbI geI sI qF tYWstF dy nqIijaF qoN pqf lwigaf sI ik iek dhfky bfad vI aYNQrYks dy keI bIjfxU ijLMdf sn. iehnF nqIijaF nUM dyKidaF AujLyibksqfn aqy kjLfKsqfn (ijhnF do dysLF df Aus smyN ies tfpU `qy kMtrol sI) dy mfhrF ny iPkr jLfhr kIqf sI ik jy ieh jIvq bIjfxU iksy qrIky nfl AuhnF dI DrqI AuWqy phuMc jfx qF Auh iehnF dysLF dy visLMidaF leI ishq nUM Kqrf bx skdy hn.

      bysLwk sMn 1997 ivwc lfgU hoeI kYmIkl vYpnjL knvYnsLn (sI zbilAU sI) anusfr rsfiexk (kYmIkl) hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn aqy jMg ivwc AuhnF dI vrqoN `qy mnfhI hY iPr vI iek lMmF smF dunIaf dy vwK vwK dysL iehnF hiQafrF df Auqpfdn krdy rhy hn aqy ies smyN dOrfn ieh hiQafr bxfAux vflIaF QFvF vfqfvrn ivwc pRdUsLn PYlfAux df kfrn bxdIaF rhIaF hn. ies sMbMD ivwc amrIkf dy sUby kOlrYzo ivwclI QF rOkI mfAUNtyn arsnl dI Audfhrn dyKI jf skdI hY. nrv gYs dy hiQafr bxfAux vflI ies QF AuWpr 1950ivaF qoN bfad hjLfrF tMn jLihrIly pdfrQF df BMzfr rwiKaf igaf sI. pihlF pihl hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn dOrfn pYdf hox vflI rihMd-KUhMd nUM AuNJ hI hiQafrF dI PYktrI dI QF AuWpr suwt idwqf jFdf irhf. iPr jdoN ieh pqf lwgf ik ies rihMd KUhMd ivwcly kwuJ jLihrIly pdfrQF ny irs  ky DrqI hyTly pfxI nUM pRdUsLq kr idwqf hY aqy ies pfxI nfl isMjIaF PslF qbfh hox lwgIaF hn qF ies rihMd KUMhd nUM DrqI hyT 2[5 mIl zUMGf bor kr ky suwtxf sLurU kr idwqf. aijhf krn dy pihly pMj sflF dOrfn hI 16 kRoV 50 lwK gYln rsfiexk aqy bfieElOjIkl rihMd KUhMd DrqI hyT suwt idwqI geI. iek smyN amrIkf ivwc rsfiexk aqy bfieElOjIkl hiQafr bxfAux dIaF 150 lYbfrtrIaF sn. rOkI mfAuNtyn ivclI QF bfry AuWpr dwsy aMkiVaF nUM iDafn ivwc rwKidaF asIN sihjy hI aMdfjLf lf skdy hF ik smuwcy amrIkf ivwclIaF 150 lYbfrtrIaF kfrn ikMnI ku jLihrIlI rihMd KUMhd vfqfvrn ivwc suwtI geI hovygI. rsfiexk hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn dOrfn vfqfvrn dy pRdUsLn dI siQqI sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan ivwc vI amrIkf vrgI hI sI. Audfhrn leI sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan df sLihr jLYrihMsk rsfiexk hiQafr Auqpfdn df kyNdr irhf sI aqy Aus sLihr dy vfqfvrn ivwc zfieaOkisn dI mfqrf dunIaF Br ivwcoN sB qoN ijLafdf sI. zfieaOkisn iek aijhf jLihrIlf rsfiex (kYmIkl) hY jo kYNsr rog df kfrn hox dy nfl keI hor ZMgF nfl mnuwKI ishq nUM nuksfn phuMcf skdf hY.

      rsfiexk hiQafrF nUM nsLt krn df kfrj vfqfvrn nUM dUisLq krn ivwc vwzf rol inBfAuNdf hY. dUjI sMsfr jMg qoN lY ky swqrivaF dy sLurU qwk rsfiexk hiQafrF nUM nsLt krn leI AuhnF nUM smuMdr ivwc suwt idwqf jFdf sI. sMn 1945 qoN lY ky sMn 1970 qwk rsfiexk hiQafrF nUM smuMdr ivwc suwtx dIaF 100 qoN vwD GtnfvF vfprIaF sn. ies smyN dOrfn arkitk mhFsfgr dy isvfey hr iek mhFsfgr ivwc rsfiexk hiQafr suwty gey. sMn 1945-48 dOrfn amrIkf ny dUjI sMsfr jMg dy Kfqmy qoN bfad jrmnI qoN kbjLy ivwc kIqy 32,000 tMn rsfiexk hiQafr smuMdr ivwc suwty. ies hI smyN dOrfn brqfnIaf ny 1, 75000 tMn rsfiexk hiQafr smuMdr ivwc suwty ijhnF ivwc 1,00000  tMn skftlYNz qoN sn aqy bfkI dy jrmn qoN kbjLy ivwc ley gey sn. sMn 1955-57 dOrfn brqfnIaf ny 25000 tMn hor rsfiexk hiQafr smuMdr ivwc suwty ijhVy Aus ny jrmnI qoN afpxy kbjLy hyT ley sn. ies hI qrHF dUjI sMsfr jMg qoN bfad sovIaq XUnIan ny gotlYNz aqy bOrnhOlm afeIlYNz dy nyVy dy smuMdr ivwc 30,000 tMn rsfiexk hiQafr suwty sn. vwK vwK irportF/aiDanF ivwc vwK vwK sRoqF qoN lY ky idwqy aMkVy iek dUsry nfl myl nhIN KFdy, ies leI pwky qOr AuWqy ieh kihxf bhuq musLikl hY ik ikMny rsfiexk hiQafr smuMdr ivwc suwty gey hn. ieh jfx lYxf hI kfPI hY ik dunIaF dy vwK vwK dysLF vwloN lwKF tMn rsfiexk hiQafr dunIaF dy vwK vwK smuMdrF ivwc suwty gey hn.

      smuMdrF ivwc suwty iehnF rsfiexk hiQafrF dy smuMdrI vfqfvrn aqy jIv jMqUaF AuWqy iks qrHF dy asr pey hn, ies bfry pwkf pqf nhIN ikAuNik ies bfry bhuq Gwt Koj hoeI hY. kI ieh hiQafr lMmf smF smuMdr ivwc rih ky Krfb ho ky lIk krn lwg skdy hn jF nhIN, iehnF hiQafrF ivwc vrqy rsfiexk pdfrQ pfxI ivwc iks qrHF dI pRiqikRaf krngy, ies bfry vI koeI spsLt irportF/aiDan nhIN hn. POjF vloN rwKy jFdy Byd kfrn nf hI smuMdrF ivwc AuhnF sfrIaF QFvF bfry pqf hY ijwQy ijwQy rsfiexk hiQafr suwty gey sn. pr smuMdr ivwc suwty hiQafrF dy lIk hox dIaF kuwJ irportF jLrUr imldIaF hn. abIr mjId anusfr sMn 1985 aqy 1995 ivckfr zwc mCyiraF ny 350 qoN vwD kysF bfry irportF kIqIaF sn jdoN bflitk smuMdr ivwc suwty gey rsfiexk hiQafrF ivwcoN kuwJ AuhnF dy mwCIaF PVHn vfly jflF ivwc Ps ky AuWpr af gey sn. ies hI qrHF aYzrIaYitk smuMdr ivwclI bfrI hfrbr ivwc suwty rsfiexk hiQafrF ivwcoN mstrz gYs lIk hox dy 230 kysF dIaF irportF imldIaF hn.

      1970ivaF ivwc rsfiexk hiQafrF nUM smuMdr ivwc suwtx qoN mnfhI kr idwqI geI. sMn 1997 ivwc kYmIkl vYpnjL knvYnsLn (sI zbilAU sI) dy lfgU hox bfad ies knvYnsLn AuWpr dsqKq krn vfly dysLF qy sLrq rwKI geI sI ik Auh rsfiexk hiQafrF df Auqpfdn nhIN krngy aqy ies knvYnsLn AuWqy dsqKq krn qoN bfad 10 sflF dy ivwc ivwc afpxy rsfiexk hiQafrF dy BMzfr nUM Kqm kr dyxgy. ies smyN iehnF hiQafrF nUM Kqm krn leI do ZMg vrqy jFdy hn. iek ZMg ivwc iehnF hiQafrF nUM DrqI AuWprlIaF QFvF ivwc suwtx qoN pihlF byasr (inAUtrflfeIjL) krnf jLrUrI hY aqy dUsry ZMg ivwc iehnF hiQafrF nUM BwTIaF ivwc bfl ky AuWcIaF icmnIaF rfhIN vfqfvrn ivwc Cwizaf jFdf hY. ies ZMg nfl Kqrnfk svfh pYdf huMdI hY. 1990ivaF ivwc amrIkf vwloN jOhnsn aYtol dy pYsyiPk afeIlYNz ivwc nrv gYs aqy hor rsfiexk pdfrQF  dy hiQafrF nUM nsLt krn kfrn Aus ielfky dy vfqfvrn ivwc hlkI pwDr dI zfieaOkisn gYs dy aMsL imly sn.  ivkIpIzIaf anusfr dunIaf dy 195 dysLF ivwcoN 188 dysLF ny kYmIkl vYpnjL knvYnsLn AuWpr dsqKq kIqy hn. nqIjy vwjoN bhuq sfry dysLF ny rsfiexk hiQafrF dy BMzfr Kqm kr idwqy hn. pr QoVHy ijhy dysLF afpxy pUry rsfiexk hiQafr Kqm nhIN kr sky. Audfhrn leI amrIkf ny afpxy bhuq sfry rsfiexk hiQafr nsLt kr idwqy hn pr pYNtfgn anusfr amrIkf afpxy sfry hiQafr 2023 qwk hI nsLt kr  skygf. ies hI qrHF rUs ajy afpxy sfry rsfiexk hiQafr Kqm nhIN kr sikaf. rUs df dfavf hY ik Auh afpxy sfry rsfiexk hiQafr 2012 qwk nsLt kr dyvygf pr amrIkf dy jnrl akfAuNitMg dPqr df aMdfjLf hY ik rUs afpxy sfry rsfiexk hiQafr 2027 qwk Kqm kr skygf. iehnF irportF nUM dyKidaF asIN afs kr skdy hF ik afAux vfly smyN ivwc  dunIaf qoN rsfiexk hiQafrF df Kfqmf ho jfvygf pr iehnF hiQafrF kfrn DrqI dy vfqfvrn df jo nuksfn hoieaf hY jF smuMdr ivwc suwty iehnF hiQafrF kfrn BivwK ivwc DrqI dy vfqfvrn nUM jo nuksfn ho skdf hY Aus bfry asIN pwkI qrHF kuwJ nhIN kih skdy.

      prmfxU hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn aqy AuhnF dy tYstF aqy sFB-sMBfl dOrfn vfqfvrn ivwc vwzI pwDr AuWqy pRdUsLn PYldf hY. abIr mjId anusfr prmfxU hiQafr bxfAux dy muwK pVfa ies qrHF hn: KfxF ivwcoN XurynIan kwZxf aqy iqafr krnf, hiQafr bxfAux dI pwDr dy plftInm df Auqpfdn, prmfxU hiQafrF dy purjLy joVnf (asMblI) aqy Zoaf ZuafeI, hiQafrF dy tYWst, hiQafrF df BMzfrIkrn, hiQafrF dy purijLaF nUM vwK vwK krnf (izsasMblI) aqy Aus kfrn pYdf hoey XurynIam, plftInm, trfeItIam aqy rsfiexk tirwgrF nfl nijwTxf. iehnF ivwcoN hr pVfa ivwc dI lMGidaF vfqfvrn pRdUsLq huMdf hY jF vfqfvrn dy pRdUsLn df Kqrf bixaf rihMdf hY. Audfhrn leI, iek aOsq pwDr df prmfxU bMb bxfAux leI KfxF ivwcoN XurynIam kwZx smyN 2000 tMn dI XurynIam dI rihMd-KUhMd (jo ik kfPI ryzIEaYkitv huMdI hY), 4 tMn izplItz XurynIam aqy 50 Gx-tMn (ikAUibk tMn) nIvyN pwDr dI ryzIEaYkitv rihMd-KUMhd pYdf huMdI hY. sMn 1945 qoN lY ky hux qwk iqafr kIqy inAUklIar vfr hYWzjL (prmfxU bMb nUM afpxy insLfny qwk lY jfx vfly imjLfiel dy isrF) dI aMdfjLx igxqI 1,28000 hY ijhnF ivwcoN 55 PIsdI amrIkf aqy 45 PIsdI rUs vwloN iqafr kIqy gey hn.

      iehnF prmfxU hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn dOrfn ikMnI ku ryzIEaYkitv rihMd-KUMhd pYdf hoeI hovygI. ies bfry amrIkn sfieMitst ivwc Cpy kYivn krOlI aqy jOhn aYWP aihrn dy afrtIkl “mYnyijMg dI ienvfiermYNtl lYgysI afP XU[ aYWs[ inAUklIar vYpnjL pRozksLn” ivwcoN kuwJ jfxkfrI pysL hY . iehnF lyKkF anusfr amrIkf df pRmfxU hiQafr bxfAux df qfxf-bfxf kfPI vwzf hY aqy dysL dy vwK vwK ihwisaF ivwc PYilaf hoieaf hY. ies qfxy-bfxy nfl sMbMDq 16 pRmuwK QFvF ivwcoN kuwJ vwzIaF QFvF hn: hYnPorz, dI iezfho nYsLnl ieMjnIairMg aYNz ienvfiermYNtl lYbfrtrI, Ek irwj aqy dwKxI kYrolInf siQwq sYvfnfh irvr. iehnF QFvF AuWqy hiQafr bxfAux, nyvI dy iPAUl aqy isvlIan vrqoN leI prmfxU smwgrI (ienircz XurynIam, plftInm aqy trfeIitam) df Auqpfdn kIqf igaf. hYnPorz sfeIt amrIkf dI visLMgtn styt ivwc kolMbIaf irvr AuWqy siQwq hY. ieh sfeIt sMn 1943 ivwc mYnhYtn pRojYkt dOrfn sLurU kIqf igaf sI aqy TMZI jMg dy aKIr AuWqy ies nUM bMd kr idwqf igaf sI. ies QF AuWqy pYdf kIqf igaf plftInm pihly prmfxU bMb ivwc vriqaf igaf sI ijs df tYWst tirMntI sfeIt AuWqy igaf sI. nON agsq 1945 nUM “PYt mYn” nF df ijhVf bMb jfpfn dy sLihr nfgfsfkI AuWqy suwitaf igaf sI, Aus ivwc vriqaf igaf plftInm vI hYnPorz ivwc hI iqafr kIqf igaf sI. amrIkf dy bhuqy prmfxU hiQafrF ivwc vriqaf igaf plftInm ies QF AuWqy iqafr kIqf igaf sI. afAu dyKIey ik ies QF qoN ikMnI ku prmfxU rihMd-KUMhd pYdf hoeI hY.   

      ieh sfeIt 50 sfl qwk kMm krdf irhf. ies smyN dOrfn iewQy  67 mItirk tMn plftInm iqafr kIqf igaf. XurynIam ivwcoN plftInm kwZx dI rsfiexk pRikRaf dOrfn 20 lwK Gx-mItr (50 kRoV gYln) bhuq hI ijLafdf ryzIEaYkitv rsfiexk jLihrIlI rihMd-KUMhd aqy 1[7 arb Gx-mItr (450 arb gYln) pRoosYWsz qrl pYdf hoieaf. lyKk amrIkf dy izpfrtmYNt afP aYnrjI dy hvfly nfl ilKdy hn ik aYstInfeIzjL (muwK rUp ivwc plftInm) nfl dUisLq 76,000 Gx-mItr Tos rihMd-KUhMd aqy 12 lwK Gx-mItr nIvyN pwDr dI dUisLq Tos rihMd KUMhd ies QF AuWqy dwbI hoeI hY. iewQy ieh gwl not krn vflI hY ik prmfxU hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn dOrfn pYdf hox vflI ryzIEaYkitv rihMd-KUhMd keI hjLfr sflF qwk jLihrIlI rihMdI hY aqy ies nUM nsLt krn df koeI qswlIbKsL hwl ajy qwk mOjUd nhIN hY.

      ies qoN ibnF keI qrHF dI rihMd-KUhMd iswDI vfqfvrn ivwc Cwz idwqI geI. Audfhrn leI kYmIkl pRosYisMg dOrfn pYdf hox vflIaF asiQr gYsF, keI vfr iPltr kIqy ibnF hI, vfqfvrn ivwc Cwz idwqIaF geIaF. kRomIam aqy ryzIEaYkitv afiesotopsF nfl dUisLq rIaYktrF nUM TMzf krn vflf pfxI bfhr KulHf Cwz idwqf igaf. rihMd-KUhMd (vyst) vwjoN pYdf hoey hor keI qrHF dy qrl DrqI AuWqly qlfvF jF DrqI hyTly qlfvF jF DrqI hyTly pfxI ivwc Cwz idwqy gey. ivmnjL ieMtrnYsLnl lIg Pfr pIs aYNz PrIzm dy vYWbsfeIt AuWqy pRkfsLq irport “dI ienvfiermYNt aYNz dI inAUklIar eyj” ivwc amrIkf dy jnrl akfAuNitMg afiPs vloN 1991 ivwc pRkfsLq kIqy iek zfkUmYNt dy hvfly nfl ikhf igaf hY ik hYnPorz sfeIt qoN 444 arb gYln ryzIEaYkitv qrl rihMd-KUMhd vfqfvrn ivwc CwzI geI sI. prmfxU rihMd KUMhd nfl sMbMDq AuWpr idwqI jfxkfrI isrP prmfxU hiQafr bxfAux nfl sMbMDq iek QF qoN hI hY. amrIkf dIaF prmfxU bxfAux vflIaF sfrIaF QFvF qoN ikMnI ryzIEaYkitv rihMd KUMhd vfqfvrn ivwc suwtI geI hovygI aqy ikMnI ku rihMd-KUMhd ajy vI AuhnF QFvF AuWqy stor kIqI peI hY ies bfry aMdfjLf sihjy hI lfieaf jf skdf hY.

      prmfxU hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn dOrfn jLihrIlI prmfxU rihMd-KUhMd pYdf hox aqy vfqfvrn ivwc suwty jfx bfry sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan ivwc vI hflq amrIkf vrgy hI sn jF keI irportF anusfr amrIkf qoN vI BYVy sn. sfbkf sovIaq XUnIan ivwc afm hI dirafvF jF JIlF ivwc prmfxU rihMd-KUMhd suwtI jFdI rhI sI. sMn 1957 ivwc rUs ivwc cYlIafibMsk siQwq prmfxU hiQafr bxfAux vflI QF `qy rihMd-KUMhd nUM sMBflx vfly iek tYNk dy Ptx nfl ryzIEaYkitv bwdl 200 vrg iklomItr qoN vI vwD KyqrPl vfly ielfky ivwc PYl igaf sI. nqIjy vjoN ies ielfky dy sB qoN vwD ryzIEaYkitv pRdUsLn vfly Kyqr ivcly lgBg sfry drwKq jF qF mr gey sn jF nuksfny gey sn. abIr  mjId anusfr sMn 1952 qoN bfad sovIaq imltrI ny mfXk plFt qoN  1 arb ikAUrIjL dy brfbr dI prmfxU rihMd-KUMhd  lyk kfrcya ivwc suwt idwqI. (ikAUrI iksy ryzIEaYkitv pdfrQ vwloN CwzI jfx vflI ryzIeysLn nUM mfpx dI iekfeI hY ijhVI iek grfm ryzIam dI ryzIEaYkitvtI dy brfbr huMdI hY.) ies JIl ivwc eynI vwzI pwDr AuWqy suwtI prmfxU rihMd-KUMhd ivwcoN pYdf hox vflI grmI dy nqIjy vwjoN ies JIl df pfxI suwkx lwg ipaf. sMn 1988 qwk ies JIl ivwc cYrnoibl prmfxU plFt dI durGtnf kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc CwzI geI ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI qoN ZfeI guxF ijLafdf ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI suwtI jf cuwkI sI. hux ieh JIl sImYNt dy pwQrF nfl BrI peI hY qF ik ies ivclI ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI ies qoN bfhr nf jf sky, iPr vI arkitk  mOnItirMg aYNz asYWsmYNt pRogrfm df kihxf hY ik ies ivwcoN rihMd-KUhMd DrqI hyTly pfxI ivwc jf skdI hY aqy AuWQoN tYkf ndI nUM pRdUsLq kr skdI hY. jy koeI ivakqI ies JIl dy kMZy iek GMtf KVf rhy qF Aus dI kuwJ hPiqaF ivwc hI mOq ho skdI hY.

      prmfxU hiQafrF nfl sMbMDq vfqfvrn dy pRdUsLn df iek hor vwzf kfrn hY prmfxU hiQafrF dy tYst. iehnF hiQafrF dy tYWstF dOrfn vwzI pwDr AuWqy ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI vfqfvrn ivwc dfKl huMdI hY. pihlF pihl prmfxU hiQafrF dy tYWst DrqI qoN AuWprly vfqfvrn ivwc kIqy jFdy sn. iPr aijhf krnf bMd kr idwqf igaf aqy prmfxU tYWst DrqI dy hyTF jF pfxI dy hyTF kIqy jfx lwgy. hux qwk dunIaf ivwc 2053 prmfxU tYst Dmfky kIqy jf cuwky hn. iehnF tYWstF dy nqIijaF vjoN vfqfvrn ivwc PYlI DmfkfKyjL smwgrI dI mfqrf amrIkf vloN hIrosLImf AuWqy suwty bMb dy afkfr dy 40,000 bMbF kfrn  pYdf hox vflI DmfkfKyjL smwgrI dy brfbr hY. iehnF tYWstF dOrfn vfqfvrn ivwc PYlx vflI ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI dI mfqrf cYrnoibl prmfxU durGtnf kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc PYlI ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI dI mfqrF qoN 50 guxF vwD hY.  vfqfvrn ivwc kIqy pRmfxU tYWstF dy nqIjy vjoN vfqfvrn ivwc PYlI ryzIEaYkitv smwgrI kfrn smyN dy bIqx nfl 15 lwK mnuwKI mOqF hox df aMdfjLf hY. ies dy nfl hI ieh gwl vI not krn vflI hY ik prmfxU hiQafrF dy Auqpfdn aqy tYWstF kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc jo pRdUsLn PYilaf hY Aus nUM sfP krnf bhuq mihMgf hY. iek irport anusfr amrIkf ivwc PYly ies pRdUsLx nUM sfP krn leI sMn 2070 qwk 3 Krb (300 iblIan) zflr Krc hox df aMdfjLf hY.

 

jMg dOrfn jMglF df Kfqmf  

     ipCly 5-6 dhfikaF dOrfn jMgF ivwc POj vloN vwzI pwDr AuWqy jMglF df nuksfn krn dIaF keI AudfhrnF imldIaF hn. asIN iewQy vIaqnfm aqy aPgfinsqfn dIaF jMgF nfl sMbMDq kuJ qwQ pysL krFgy. jrgn brfier afpxI ikqfb “vfr aYNz nycr” ivwc ilKdf hY ik vIaqnfm dI jMg dOrfn vIaqnfm dy jMglF df iqMn ZMgF nfl nuksfn hoieaf. sB qoN pihlF qF ies jMg dOrfn amrIkn POjF vloN vIaqnfm dI DrqI AuWqy suwty gey bMbF ny AuWQoN dy jMglF df kfPI nuksfn kIqf. jdoN iksy jMgl ivwc koeI bMb izwgdf hY qF Auh sLfk qrMgF pYdf krky, afpxy CwiraF nfl aqy DrqI AuWpr toey pf ky jMglfq nUM nuksfn phuMcfAuNdf hY. brfier dy aMdfjLy anusfr dwKxI vIaqnfm AuWpr amrIkf vwloN suwty bMbF kfrn dwKxI vIaqnfm dI DrqI dy kuwl KyqrPl dy 40 PIsdI ihwsy AuWqy  2 qoN 2[5 kroV qwk drwKq nsLt ho gey sn. iewQy ieh gwl vI not krn vflI hY ik amrIkf vwloN bhuqy bMb do sflF, sMn 1968 aqy 1969 ivwc suwty gey sn, ies leI iehnF drwKqF ivwcoN bhuqy drwKq vI iehnF do sflF ivwc nsLt hoey hoxgy. eyny QoVHy vkPy ivwc eyny ijLafdf drwKqF dy Kfqmy nfl jLrUr hI vfqfvrn AuWqy asr vI iqwKf hoieaf hovygf.

      drwKqF dy Kfqmy dy nfl vfqfvrn AuWqy hor kI asr pY skdy hn? ies bfry brfier df anumfn ies pRkfr hY. drwKqF dy Kfqmy nfl DrqI hyTF pfxI df pwDr (vftrtybl) AuWcf ho jFdf hY ijhVf ik sQfnk “eIkoisstm” AuWqy asr pfAux dy nfl nfl afpxy qoN nIvyN pfsy dy “eIkoisstm” AuWqy vI asr pfAuNdf hY ijs kfrn imwtI Kur skdI hY, imwtI ivwcly AupjfAU qwq nsLt ho skdy hn  aqy hVH af skdy hn. toieaF vflI DrqI ivwc pfxI KVHf rih skdf hY aqy Aus ivwc Psl AugfAuxI musLikl ho skdI hY. brfier kuwJ irportF dy hvfly nfl awgy ilKdf hY ik sMn 1965-71 ivckfr ieMzocIn dI DrqI AuWqy bMbF kfrn 2 kRoV 60 lwK toey puwty gey sn ijhnF kfrn 1710 vrg iklomItr df ielfkf pRBfivq hoieaf sI. iehnF irportF anusfr lVfeI qoN keI sflF bfad qwk vI toieaF duafly dI DrqI aqy bnspqI burI qrHF pRBfivq rhI, iehnF ielfikaF ivwc Jony dIaF PslF AugfAux ivwc musLikl afAuNdIaF rhIaF ikAuNik zUMGy toieaF ivwc Jonf AugfAuxf musLikl sI aqy toieaF vfly ielfky ivwc Gfh df bolbflf ho igaf aqy jMglF df dubfrF AuWgxf musLikl ho bx igaf.

      bMbF dy nfl nfl amrIkf dIaF POjF ny vIaqnfm dy pyNzU ielfikaF ivwc jMglF df sPfieaf krn leI vwzI pwDr AuWqy bulzojLrF dI vI vrqoN kIqI sI. aijhf ies leI kIqf igaf sI qF ik vIaqnfmI POjF amrIkn POjF AuWpr jMglF ivwcoN Gfq lf ky hmly nf kr skx aqy Auh jMglF ivwc luk nf skx. pihlF pihl bulzojrF nfl vwzIaF sVkF dy nfl lwgdIaF 100-300 mItr qwk dIaF pwtIaF ivwcoN jMglF df sPfieaf kIqf igaf. bfad ivwc bulzojrF dIaF POjI tukVIaF bxf ky sYNkVy vrg iklomItrF ivwcoN jMglF df AuWkf hI sPfieaf kr idwqf igaf. kuwl imlf ky dwKxI vIaqnfm ivwc bulzojLrF nfl 3250 vrg iklomItr jMgl Kqm kr idwqy gey. ieh KyqrPl dwKxI vIaqnfm dy kuwl KyqrPl dy do PIsdI dy brfbr bxdf hY. jMglF dy ies Kfqmy dy nfl nfl iehnF jMglF ivwc rihMdy jMglI jfnvrF df vI sPfieaf ho igaf aqy ies Kyqr dI hyTlI imwtI Kory dI mfr hyT af geI. 

      ies qoN ibnF amrIkI POjF ny vIaqnfm dy jMglF aqy PslF df nuksfn krn leI vwzI pwDr AuWqy bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF dI vrqoN kIqI. aijhf do kfrnF krky kIqf igaf. iek qF jMglF ivwc drKqF dy pwqy JfVn leI qF ik vIaqnfmI POjF jMglF ivwc luk nf skx aqy dUsrf PslF qbfh krn leI qFik vIaqnfm dy anfj Auqpfdn AuWpr swt mfrI jf sky. brfier ey[ aYWc[ vYsitMg dy hvfly nfl ilKdf hY ik sMn 1962-71 ivckfr amrIkI POjF vwloN dwKxI vIaqnfm dy 16,700 vrg iklomItr dy ielfky AuWpr 7 kRoV 24 lwK lItr bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF iCVkfeIaF geIaF. iehnF dvfeIaF nfl vIaqnfm dy vfqfvrn AuWpr iks qrHF df asr ipaf hY ies bfry brfier bhuq sfry aiDanF ivwcoN jfxkfrI pysL krdf hY. ieh aiDan krn leI vrqy gey vwK vwK ZMgF, vwK vwK jfxkfrI dy sRoqF afid kfrn iehnF ivwc vIaqnfm ivwc hoey vfqfvrn dy nuksfn bfry vwK vwK aMdfjLy lgfey gey hn. ies dy nfl nfl keI hor pwK hn jo bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF kfrn vIaqnfm dy jMglF nUM hoey nuksfn bfry shI aMdfjLf lfAux ivwc musLikl pysL krdy hn. Audfhrn leI, jMglF dy drwKqF AuWqy pwqy JfVn leI iCVkI dvf kfrn drwKqF nUM hoieaf nuksfn isrP iek sIjn leI hI irhf sI jF ies kfrn pwkf jF lMmy icr qwk rihx vflf nuksfn vI hoieaf sI. ies hI qrHF Auprly drwKqF dy pwqy JVn nfl AuhnF dy hyTF AuWgIaF hoeIaF jVHIaF bUtIaF aqy jIv jMqUaF AuWpr iks qrHF df asr hoieaf sI. iehnF aqy ies qrHF dIaF hor musLiklF kfrn brfier dwKxI vIaqnfm ivwc eynI vwzI mfqrf ivwc vrqIaF geIaF bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF kfrn vfqfvrn nUM hoey nuksfn bfry Tos nqIjy kwZxoN iJjkdf hY. pr ies dy nfl nfl Auh ieh vI kihMdf hY ik “bMbF kfrn dwKxI vIaqnfm dI 40 PIsdI DrqI, bulzojLrF kfrn 2 PIsdI DrqI aqy bUtInfsLk dvfeIaF dI vrqoN kfrn 10 PIsdI DrqI pRBfivq hoeI. ieh spwsLt rUp ivwc ikhf jf skdf hY ik lgBg awDy dwKxI vIaqnfm dy vfqfvrn AuWqy pRBfv ipaf. bysLwk, ieh asr keI qrHF dy sn. Auh gMBIr vI sn aqy iek qrHF nfl lMmy smyN qwk rihx vfly vI. Auh gMBIr ies qrHF sn ik kRoVF drwKq aqy hor bnspqI nuksfnI geI aqy nsLt ho geI. bnspqI dy nsLt hox nfl jfnvrF dI Kurfk aqy pnfh vflIaF QFvF ivwc kmI afAuNdI hY. vfqfvrn ivwc dubfrf suDfr hox ivwc dhfky lwgdy hn, ies leI ieh asr lMmy smyN qwk rihx vfly sn (hn)[[[”

      aPgfinsqfn ipCly iqMn dhfikaF qoN jMg dI mfr hyT hY. iehnF iqMnF dhfikaF dOrfn aPgfinsqfn dy jMglF nUM burI qrHF nuksfn phuMicaf hY. ies nuksfn krn ivwc jMg ny keI ZMgF nfl afpxf asr pfieaf hY. sB qoN pihlF bMbF aqy golIbfrI kfrn jMglF df iswDf nuksfn hoieaf hY. kuwJ iek irportF ivwc aPgfinsqfn ivwc sovIaq XUnIan dIaF POjF dy dOr smyN  lVfeI dOrfn jMglF nUM awgF lwgx dIaF irportF hn. dUjI pwDr AuWqy dysL ivwc eynf smF lVfeI rihx kfrn dysL ivwc koeI siQr aqy mjLbUq srkfr nhIN rhI ijsdI aQfrtI sfry dysL AuWqy lfgU huMdI hovy aqy jo dysL dy jMglF dI sMBfl aqy surwiKaf krn dy Xog hovy. nqIjy vwjoN aPgfinsqfn ivwc iek itMbr mfPIaf pYdf ho igaf hY jo aPgfinsqfn dy jMglF nUM kwt kwt ky pfiksqfn nUM smgl kr irhf hY. mdr jonjL mYgjLIn ivwc Cpy iek afrtIkl ivwc mfeIkl kYNbr ilKdf hY ik qusIN aPgfinsqfn/pfiksqfn bfrzr AuWqy KVHy ho ky kwty hoey drwKqF dy qixaF (lfgF) nfl lwdy hoey trwk aPgfinsqfn qoN pfiksqfn ivwc afAuNdy afm dyK skdy ho. aPgfinsqfn ivwc itMbr dI ieh smwgilMg vpfrk Pfiedy leI vI kIqI jFdI hY aqy qfilbnF vwloN afpxIaF POjI kfrvfeIaF leI Dn iekwqr krn leI vI kIqI jFdI hY. aPgfinsqfn ivwc jMglF dy nuksfn dy sMbMD ivwc aglI gwl ieh hY ik lVfeI kfrn aPgfinsqfn df buinafdI ZFcf burI qrHF Zih ZyrI ho igaf hY. ibjlI pYdf krn vfly keI plFt aqy ibjlI ilafAux vflIaF lfeInF Zih ZyrI ho geIaF. nqIjy vwjoN sLihrF dI vsoN nUM vI afpxIaF bflx dIaF loVF dI pUrqI krn leI lwkV AuWqy inrBr hoxf pY irhf hY, ijs nfl aPgfinsqfn dy jMglF nUM kwtx dI dr ivwc  hor vfDf ho irhf hY.

      sMn 2002 ivwc XUnfeIitz nysLnjL ienvfiermYNt pRogrfm dI iek tIm aPgfinsqfn ivwc vfqfvrn nUM hoey nuksfn df jfiejLf lYx leI geI qF Aus ny afpxI irport “aPgfinsqfn afn dI birMk afP nYcurl ziejLYstr” ivwc iliKaf ik bfdGIs aqy qwKr sUibaF dy keI ielfikaF ivwc iek vI drwKq nhIN bwicaf, ijhnF ielfikaF ivwc iqMn dhfky pihlF Gxy jMgl huMdy sn. mfeIkl kYNbr vI afpxy afrtIkl ivwc aPgfinsqfn dI vfqfvrn aqy jMglF dI siQqI bfry kuwJ ies qrHF dy ivcfr hI pysL krdf hY. Auh ilKdf hY, “amrIkf vloN qfilbfn aqy alkfiedf ivruwD lVI jf rhI lVfeI ivwc aPgfinsqfn dy vfqfvrn bfry bhuq Gwt ikhf igaf hY. ieh iek bhuq vwzI Buwl hY ikAuNik ZfeI kRoV vsoN vflf, cfry pfisAuN DrqI nfl iGiraf (lYNz lfkz) ieh dysL vfqfvrn nfl sMbMDq mfrU qbfhI df sfhmxf kr irhf hY, ijhVy sMkt nUM jMg ny hor iBafnk bxf idwqf  hY. ies smyN KfnfjMgI df iek hor gyV dysL dy jMglF aqy pihlF hI sMktmeI siQqI ivwc iGry keI jIv jMqUaF df sPfieaf kr skdf hY.” kYNbr afpxy afrtIkl ivwc awgy ilKdf hY ik vfqfvrn nfl sMbMDq sMsQFvF isPfirsL kr rhIaF hn ik DrqI nUM ho rhy nuksfn aqy hvf dI kuafltI TIk rwKx leI aPgfinsqfn dy 15 PIsdI KyqrPl ivwc jMgl hoxy cfhIdy hn jdoN ik aslIaq ieh hY ik hux aPgfinsqfn dI DrqI dy isrP 1 aqy do PIsdI Kyqr ivwc jMgl hn.

 

 

POj vloN vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux dy hor pwK

     hux qwk asIN POj vwloN vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux dy kuwJ iek pwKF bfry ivsQfrpUrbk gwl kIqI hY. iehnF qoN ibnF POj vloN vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux dy keI hor pwK vI hn. Audfhrn leI POj dIaF isKlfeI dIaF msLkF, jMgF kfrn pYdf hoey sLrnfrQI aqy POjI msLInrI aqy sfjLo sfmfn bxfAux leI vrqI jFdI smwgrI, AUrjf, aqy hor vsIly vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux ivwc vwzI BUimkf inBfAuNdy hn. lyK lMmf ho jfx kfrn iewQy iehnF sfry pwKF bfry ivsQfrpUrbk gwl nhIN kIqI jf skdI. ies dy nfl hI ieh gwl vI not krn vflI hY ik ies lyK ivwc vrqIaF bhuqIaF AudfhrnF amrIkf dI POj nfl sMMbMDq hn. aijhf ies krky vfpiraf hY ikAuNik ies lyK bfry Koj kridaF lyKk nUM amrIkf bfry ijLafdf jfxkfrI pRfpq hoeI hY. ies dy nfl hI ieh vI not krn vflI gwl hY ik ies smyN dunIaf Br ivwc POjF AuWqy hox vfly KricaF dy 43 PIsdI dy brfbr Krcy amrIkf vwloN kIqy jf rhy hn.  stfkhom ieMtrnYsLnl pIs rIsrc ieMstIicAUt vwloN sMn 2009 ivwc dunIaf Br ivwc hoey kuwl POjI KricaF df aMdfjLF  15.31 Krb (1[531 itRlIan jF1531 iblIan) zflr dy brfbr lfieaf igaf hY. iehnF KricaF ivwcoN 6[61 Krb (661 iblIan) zflr amrIkf ny Krcy sn. iPr vI ieh lyK pVH ky ieh pRBfv iblkul nhIN lYxf cfhIdf ik dunIaf dy hor dysLF dIaF POjF dI vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn ivwc BUimkf nhIN hY. hr dysL dIaF POjF dI vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux ivwc vwzI BUimkf hY. Audfhrn leI, 15 julfeI 2010 nUM zYmokrysI nfAu nUM idwqI iek ieMtrvIAU dOrfn iswkm dy glysLIar aqy klfeImyt cyNj kimsLn dy pRDfn seId iekbfl hsnYn ny ikhf ik  ihmfilaf Kyqr ivwc mOjUd cIn, ihMdusqfn aqy pfiksqfn dIaF POjF dIaF gwzIaF vloN qyl bflx kfrn vfqfvrn ivwc CwzIaF jf rhIaF grIn hfAUs gYsF ies Kyqr dy glysLIarF nUM ipGlfAux df iek kfrn ho skdIaF hn.

 

iswtf:

     AuprlI jfxkfrI dy afDfr AuWpr sB qoN pihlf iswtf qF ieh kwiZaf jf skdf hY ik POj aqy AusdIaF kfrvfeIaF dI vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcfAux ivwc vwzI BUimkf hY. afm krky sfzy hukmrfnF vwloN ieh dfavf kIqf jFdf hY ik POj dI hoNd dysL/dysLF dI surwiKaf leI jLrUrI hY. pr aslIaq ieh hY ik dunIaF Br ivwc POj, Aus vwloN lVIaF jf rhIaF jMgF aqy AusdIaF hor kfrvfeIaF vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcf ky DrqI dI hoNd leI aqy nqIjy vjoN sfzI surwiKaf leI Kqrf bx rhIaF hn. POj dIaF jMgI kfrvfrIaF kfrn iekwly Aus QF dy vfqfvrn nUM hI nuksfn nhIN phuMcdf ijwQy jMg lVI jf rhI hovy sgoN smuwcI DrqI dy vfqfvrn nUM nuksfn phuMcdf hY. nqIjy vjoN jMgI kfrvfeIaF kfrn AuhnF lokF dI hoNd vI Kqry ivwc pYNdI hY jo jMg dy ielfky qoN dUr hox.

ies leI jy asIN shI arQF ivwc vfqfvrn nUM bcfAuxf hY qF sfzy vloN sMsfr Br ivwc lVIaF jf rhIaF jMgF df ivroD krnf jLrUrI hY.

     pRcwilq mIzIey ivwc afm qOr AuWqy vfqfvrn dI smwisaf dy kuwJ ies qrHF dy hwl pysL kIqy jFdy hn: vfqfvrn nUM bcfAux leI sfnUM Aus kmry dI bwqI bMd kr dyxI cfhIdI hY ijs kmry ivwc asIN nf hoeIey, sfnUM aijhy blb vrqxy cfhIdy hn ijhVy ibjlI dI Kpq Gwt krdy hox, sfnUM ibnF vjHf dy kfr stfrt nhIN rwKxI cfhIdI, sfnUM vsqF rIsfeIkl krnIaF cfhIdIaF hn, vgYrf vgYrf. jy asIN iehnF hwlF nUM AupRokq jfxkfrI dy mwdynjLr dyKIey qF ieh gwl sfP ho jFdI hY ik ieh hwl vfqfvrn dI smwisaf nUM sulJfAux leI koeI asrdfiek BUimkf nhIN inBf skdy. Audfhrn leI ijMnf qyl 1000 kfrF sfl ivwc KFdIaF hn, Aunf qyl aYbrYm tYNkF dI iek izvIjLn iek idn ivwc Kf jFdI hY jF ijMnf qyl iek pirvfrk kfr iqMn sflF ivwc KFdI hY, Aunf jF Aus qoN vwD qyl iek PfeItr jhfjL iek GMty ivwc Kf jFdy hY. asIN afpxIaF kfrF nUM ibnHF vjHf dy stfrt rwKx AuWqy ijMnI mrjLI rok lf leIey, asIN vfqfvrn ivwc PYlx vflIaF gYsF dI mfqrf Aunf icr nhIN Gtf skFgy ijMnf icr qwk POjF dy iekwly iekwly PfeItr jhfjL iek GMty ivwc qyl dy sYNkVy gYlnF dI Kpq krdy rihxgy. ies leI vfqfvrn ivwc grIn hfAUs gYsF dy PYlfa nUM rokx leI jMg aqy POjI kfrvfeIaF df ivroD krnf jLrUrI hY.

     aKIr ivwc sfzy leI ieh smJxf vI jLrUrI hY ik dunIaF ivwc lVIaF jf rhIaF ieh jMgF, POjF dI igxqI ivwc ho irhf ieh vfDf aqy hiQafrF df ho irhf ieh Auqpfdn sMsfr dy isafsI aqy afriQk pRbMD nfl bwJf hoieaf hY. ies sMsfr-pRbMD ivwc qfkqvr dysLF vwloN afpxIaF loVF leI dUjy dysLF dy vsIilaF AuWqy iswDy jF aiswDy rUp ivwc kfbjL hox leI POj dI vrqoN nUM jfiejL mMinaf jFdf hY. ies pRbMD ivwc POj AuWqy kIqy jf rhy KrbF zflrF dy KricaF nUM afriQkqf ivwc vfDy df sfDn smiJaf jFdf hY. ies pRbMD ivwc hr Aus cIjL nUM Kqm krnf jfiejL smiJaf jFdf hY jo ies dy rfh ivwc roVf bxdI hovy. ies leI dunIaF Br ivwc ho rhy vfqfvrn dy nuksfn leI ies sMsfr-pRbMD dI Kfs BUimkf hY. nqIjy vwjoN vfqfvrn dy bcfa leI ies sMsfr pRbMD nUM cuxOqI dyxI jLrUrI hY.***

 

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